The herb Papaver is a member of the Poppy family. This flower is cultivated as a decorative and medicinal plant. In a number of countries, poppy cultivation is prohibited, as most of its species include narcotic substances. In some countries, the poppy is grown on an industrial scale to produce opium, which is extracted from unripe boxes. Opium is used as a raw material for the manufacture of painkillers and sleeping pills.
Features Of Papaver
Poppy is a herbaceous rhizome plant that can be perennial, biennial or annual. The taproot goes deep into the soil, while the suction roots are placed on the periphery, which is easily torn off during transplantation. Apical correct flowers have a large number of stamens, they are placed on a powerful and relatively long peduncle.
As a rule, the flowers are single, but there are species in which they are part of the paniculate inflorescences. Whole large petals may have the orange, pink, white, red, yellow or salmon color. The fruit is a capsule club-shaped form, inside which are seeds, it sealed flat or convex disk. When the box is ripe, it bursts, and its seeds scatter in different directions for a decent distance. Seeds remain viable for 3-4 years.
The Cultivation Of Papaver From Seed
Annual poppy is not grown through seedlings, as it gives good shoots when sown in open soil. In addition, if you grow such a plant through seedlings, it is likely that it will die after transplantation. Poppy perennial can be grown seedling way. After the shoots will be the first pair of these sheet plates, it should be their dive to a permanent place in the open ground.
How To Plant In The Garden
Almost all species and varieties of this flower grow well in well-lit areas. Regarding the soil, all species and varieties have their own special preferences. Variety, perfectly growing in poor soil, does not require pre-planting site preparation. To simplify sowing, it is recommended to combine seeds with fine sand in a ratio of 1:10.
Seeding of the plant is not carried out in rows, because they can not stay in the place where you put them. Make sure that the soil in the area with crops has always been a little moist. After the seedlings appear, it is necessary to conduct their thinning, while between the plants should observe a distance of 15-20 yard.
If sowing was carried out in spring, the first seedlings should appear 1-1.5 weeks. Bloom poppy after 3-3.5 months from the date of sowing, flowering duration ― 1-1.5 months.
Care Of Poppy In The Garden
Grow poppy is not difficult. Watering it is necessary only during a long severe drought. When the plants are watered, between them should loosen the surface of the soil, and pull out all the weeds. To significantly reduce the number of weeding, watering, and loosening, it is necessary to mulch the surface of the site.
Feeding these flowers is not necessary, but it should be noted that they react very well to feeding. Poppy is sick very rarely, and it is not often settled and harmful insects, so the treatment is carried out only as necessary.
Faded annual poppy should be removed from the soil and burned. In order for it to bloom longer, it is necessary to break off the forming boxes in a timely manner. If the testes did not touch it, next season will seem self-sowing. In autumn, the site should be removed from the plant residues and dig the soil.
If the poppy is grown as a perennial plant, after flowering it loses its attractive appearance, and therefore it should be cut level with the surface of the site. Such flowers shelter for the winter is not necessary.
Types And Varieties Of The Poppy With Photo
It has already been mentioned above that poppies, which are annuals and perennials, are cultivated by gardeners. Below will be described those annual species that are most popular with gardeners.
Papaver Nudicaule, or Mac Papaver Croceum
This is a perennial plant in the culture is grown as an annual. Its homeland is Altai, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia, and Central Asia. The height of the shoots is about 0.3 m. Basal pinnate leaf plates are painted in light gray or pale green, their surface can be hairy or bare.
The diameter of the flowers varies from 25 to 50 mm, they are located on powerful pedicels, reaching a length of 15 to 20 centimeters. They can be painted in yellow, white or orange. Flowering plant in May and October. Any of the parts of the poppy contain poison!
This species comes from Central and Western Europe, Asia Minor, Central Russia, and the Mediterranean. Its sprawling branching shoots are erect, their height varies from 0.3 to 0.6 oz. Stem leaf plate tripartite, with pinnatisect lobes, and basal ― large pinnate-lobed and serrated.
On the surface of the leaf plates and shoots, there are coarse hairs. Diameter Terry or simple flowers reaches 5-7 yard, they are painted in pink, salmon, red and white, with the white or dark color edge, and at the base of the petals may be a dark spot.
Papaver Somniferum, Or Poppy Opium
In natural conditions, this species is found in the Mediterranean. Meter height often weakly branched, upright shoots are painted in green-gray color, the surface is a wax coating. Basal leaf plates have an oblong shape, and stem ― elliptical, with the upper leaves triangular greenish, there are curly.
Single flowers can be simple or double, their diameter ― 9-10 yards. They are painted in pink, purple, white, purple, red or lilac, there are spots at the base of the petals of white or dark color. Flowers are placed on long peduncles. Flowers open in the morning and fade ― in the evening.
Papaver Properties: Harm And Benefit
Many hundreds of years ago it was known about the properties of the opium poppy. From the seeds of this plant prepared a drink that was used as a sleeping pill and analgesic. Also, this plant was very popular in Ancient Greece: in myths, it is said that the poppy seeds were always carried by the God of dreams Morpheus and sleep Gipson, and Hera ― the goddess of fertility.
During the reign of Charlemagne in Europe poppy was valued very highly, so the state peasants were obliged to take 26 liters of seeds of this plant. It was used to treat sick people, and it was given to the child for a night of better sleep. In those days, no one knew that poppy seeds were unsafe.
Poppy seeds contain fat, sugars and proteins, vitamins E, PP, cobalt, copper, zinc, phosphorus, iron and sulfur, and the petals contain fatty oil, vitamin C, alkaloids, glycosides, anthocyanins, flavonoids, organic acids, and gum. The most valuable vegetable oils include poppy seed oil. It is used in the production of cosmetics and paints.
Poppy seeds of blue color are used as an expectorant, and even of them prepare a decoction that eliminates pain in the ears, as well as toothache. Preparations from poppy seeds are used in the treatment of insomnia, pneumonia, liver disease, catarrh of the stomach and hemorrhoids.
A decoction of poppy roots is used to treat migraine and inflammation of the sciatic nerve. A decoction of seeds is used to improve digestion. This plant is used for excessive sweating, inflammation of the bladder, dysentery, and diarrhea.
The following potent drugs are produced on the basis of poppy: Morphine, Narceine, Codeine, Papaverine, and Narcotine. They can not be used without prior consultation with your doctor.
There are people who are forbidden to receive funds made on the basis of a poppy. These include elderly people, young children under two years of age, people who are prone to alcohol abuse. And these drugs can not be taken by people with cholelithiasis, emphysema, respiratory depression, anoxemia, asthma or chronic constipation.