The bulbous blossoming perennial plant a Hyacinthus is the representative of family Asparagus, however earlier it was a part of the family the Lily family, and it was allocated in separate family Hyacinthine. In translation from Ancient Greek, the hyacinth means “a flower of rains”.
Short description of cultivation
The plant in honor of the hero of the Ancient Greek myth was called. There lived in those old times very beautiful young man Hyacinth, the son of the tsar of Sparta. God Apollo was his friend, he quite often came back to Earth to teach Hyacinth to throw disks. And here somehow, training Hyacinth, Apollo threw a disk, and the young man rushed behind it to return it to god.
However, god of the Western wind which was secretly fallen in love with the prince, having been jealous of him, could turn a disk in such a way that it hurt the head to handsome. Hyacinth died at the friend on hands, and that could make nothing to save him. Then god, heart-broken, decided to create an incredibly beautiful flower which was called a hyacinth from drops of blood of the beautiful young man.
- Landing. Planting of bulbs of a Hyacinth is carried out in the fall in September or October. And dig out them every year after yellowing of foliage (in the last days of June or the beginning of July).
- Storage. On storage of a bulb remove in a well-aired room with moderate humidity. They are stacked in packages from paper or in 2 layers in boxes. The two first landing material are stored month at a temperature of about 25 degrees, and then it is transferred to a more cool place (about 17 degrees).
- Illumination. Needs a large amount of bright sunlight.
- Soil. It has to be nutritious, it is good to pass water and to contain a large amount of hummus. The acidity should not be lower than 6.5.
- Watering. During a long drought, it is necessary to water hyacinths so that soil got wet on depth from 6 to 8 in.
- Fertilizer. It is necessary to feed up a flower twice or three times throughout a season. The first fertilizing ― at the very beginning of the vegetative period phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizer, the second ― during formation of buds and the third ― when a bush will fade phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.
- Reproduction. Seeds.
- Diseases. Penitsillezny decay, fusariosis, yellow or soft bacterial decayed.
- Properties. Any of parts of a plant contains poisonous alkaloid.
Features of a Hyacinth
The hyacinth is among the earliest spring flowers. A sorts this plant from North Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean. However, Holland made much for promoting of a hyacinth for this reason its many call the world “hyacinthine center”. The greatest number of versions and grades of a hyacinth appeared in the Netherlands.
And from the city of Harlem which is in Holland, a huge number of bulbs of this flower is annually dispatched worldwide. At hyacinths, the dense bulbs consist of local juicy sheet plates. The height of the blossoming stalk about 12 in, it is the continuation of a collum.
At a deflowered bush the stalk withers together with the very narrow sheet plates directed up which sit at a stalk at the very bottom. However in a corner of the top sheet plate on a stalk in a bulbous the kidney which becomes a new bulb over time is formed, it will blossom next year. In corners of other sheet plates, bulbs can be also formed, but they are weaker.
These bulbous are shoots, in need of them, it is possible to separate and grow up from them new bushes. Flowers are a part of top brushes which possess a cone-shaped or cylindrical form. At a flower the perianth has the form of a bell funnel, blades at it are unbent, and color saturated. Inflorescences can be painted in various color shades, for example: red, lilac, yellowish, white, pink, blue, etc. Flowers can be terry and simple. At such plant, the fruit, at the same time is in each of nests on a couple of seeds covered with a gentle peel.
Features of cultivation
Any of cultures has agrotechnical requirements. The hyacinth differs from many flowers in what is quite whimsical and exacting in leaving. For this reason before decorating with it the garden, it is necessary to learn how it is correct to look after him and that it is necessary for it for the normal growth and development. Basic rules of cultivation of a hyacinth:
- The soil is necessary neutral, the cespitose and sheet earth (1:1) and also baking powder has to be its part. If soil sour, then it is necessary to bring lime in it, and the clay soil can be corrected, having added to it sand.
- This plant extremely negatively reacts to stagnation of water in the soil for this reason it should provide good drainage.
- For cultivation of a hyacinth choose the solar place, however, excessively bright lighting can do much harm to it.
- Well, the site which is near trees and bushes because flowers have to be protected from wind gusts is suitable for landing.
- Do not feed up hyacinths fresh organic fertilizer.
In what time to put to the open ground
To the open soil of a bulb of a hyacinth land in the last days of September or the first ― October. If to put them before the put term then they can start in growth, and the come winter cold weather will ruin them. If to land them later, then it is necessary, then they can well not manage to take roots to frosts. The site on which hyacinths will grow needs to be prepared in advance.
Carry out rejigging of soil on depth from 12 to 15 in, at the same time bring in soil from 22 to 33 lb of rotten compost or three-four-year humus and also about 0,5 oz of sulfate magnesium, 2,5 oz of superphosphate and 1,05 oz of sulfate potassium at the rate on 3,2 sq. ft.
Depending on what soil consists of, if necessary still it is possible to bring peat or sand in it. If soil on the site sandy, then it is necessary to bring in it 1.5 times more than potash and magnesian fertilizers. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers hyacinths recommend to feed up during the spring and summer period.
Landing in the Autumn
It was already said above about what hyacinth in a garden land in autumn time, to be exact, in September-October. Experienced gardeners advise landing bulbous of average size which still calls because they give the Flower Stalk differing in high resistance to bad weather.
For a start examine landing material and remove everything the sick, soft or injured bulbous. Then they before the disembarkation to the soil are immersed in the solution of fungicide medicine for 30 minutes. Lukovichki, in the diameter the reaching about 50 mm, land on depth from a collum from 15 to 18 centimeters, a width of row-spacings has to be about 8 in, and a distance between bulbs ― 6 in. Lukovichki of the smaller size and also the child is landed on smaller depth, at the same time the distance between them needs to be reduced too.
Best of all the hyacinth grows in the open soil in the case to land it in “a sandy shirt”. For this purpose on a bottom of a groove or a landing, pole fills a layer of river clean sand which thickness has to be about 1,1 – 2 oz. Press a bulbous into this layer a little and powder it from above also with sand and only then the soil. Thanks to this way of landing there will be no stagnation of water in the soil, therefore, the risk of emergence of decay on a bulb considerably will decrease. If bulbous landed to the dry soil, then they need to be watered.
Care of hyacinths
To look after the hyacinth which is grown up in the open ground, not too difficult however all agrotechnical rules of culture need to be known and to surely follow them. First of all, it is necessary to watch that on the site on which the hyacinth grows there were no weeds, therefore, weddings have to be regular and timely.
Also, it is necessary to remember that the surface of the soil around bushes is surely systematically loosened and do it quite often. To reduce the number of waterings, weddings, and loosening after planting of bulbs in soil, its surface fills up with a mulch layer. It is necessary to water a hyacinth only during a drought, at the same time the soil has to get wet surely deep into on 6 – 8 in.
In order that such flowers well grew and developed them it is necessary to feed up in due time. Throughout the vegetative period, it is necessary to feed up bushes only 2 or 3 times. Flowers it is possible to feed up dry fertilizer, having brought it in the soil, or liquid nutritious solution (in this case a little fewer fertilizers are used). Before bringing a nutritious solution in the soil, flowers need to be watered. If dry fertilizers are used, then scatter them on the surface of the site and then close up to the earth, using for this purpose a chopper.
Time of carrying out fertilizing: the first ― at the very beginning of the vegetative period, for fertilizing use from 0,6 – 0,8 oz of saltpeter and 0,7 – 0,8 oz of superphosphate at the rate on 3,2 sq. ft; the second ― during formation of buds, for this purpose in the soil, bring from 0,8 – 1,05 oz of superphosphate and 0,7 – 0,9 oz of sulfate potassium at the rate on 3,2 sq. ft; the third ― after bushes will fade, for this purpose use 1,05 – 1,1 oz of sulfate potassium and the same amount of superphosphates at the rate on 3,2 sq. ft.
To replace hyacinths to other sites, special efforts will not be required. For a start in the summertime when bushes fade, dig out bulbous and move away from them on storage. And with the approach of fall put them on the new site. Dig out bulbous later few months after hyacinths fade. This time is necessary in order that bulbs managed to restore forces after the period of vegetation and blossoming.
Reproduction of hyacinths
It is possible to multiply a hyacinth in the seed way which is ideal for those who are engaged in the selection of plants. Seeding of seeds is carried out in the last days of September, for this purpose use the box filled with the substrate consisting of hummus, the sheet soil and sand (2:1:1). Seedlings grow up for two years in a cold hotbed. The hyacinths which appeared from seeds very seldom keep high-quality signs of a maternal plant for this reason gardeners prefer to make multiple copies such plant in a vegetative way.
Reproduction by escapes
It is much easier to multiply a hyacinth sprout, than seeds. But at the same time, it is necessary to consider that children on the bulbous accrue extremely slowly, so, for 1 year it can be created from 1 to 3 sprout. Try to separate sprout from a parental bulbous if they come off with little effort, then they are landed in a separate hole and grown. However, if children separate with great difficulty, then leave them on a parental bulb which is planted in soil together with them. In industrial floristic culture, hyacinths make multiple copies in artificial ways, namely by means of an incision and cutting a collum. For this purpose take a very sharp tool and well sterilize it, make by it cuts on a collum or at all cut out it. Further bulbous remove on storage in a special way and they form children. Happens that on one bulb about 40 sprouts are formed. Very in detail, this way of reproduction of hyacinths is described in the book “Reproduction of Plants” by F. Mac-Millana Brouz.
Diseases and wreckers of hyacinths
Hyacinths differ in quite high resistance to diseases. However if they were struck with a disease, then it could occur for the following reasons: the bought landing material was already struck with a disease; flowers fed up fresh organic fertilizer; bad predecessors; the spoiled bulbous was planted in soil; before planting of a bulb were not exposed to preventive processing; too dense landing. The most often this plant is struck by bacterial decay (a bacterial disease) because become similar to slime which very bad smells.
The first signs of defeat by decay ― the bush lags behind in growth, and on its foliage and the Flower Stalk strips and specks are formed. Sick flowers are taken from the soil and destroyed, and the place where they grew, processed chloric lime. All parts of the struck bush which are above the ground are covered by a raid which is a mushroom product, on a plant, there is decay, and its flowers dry up. To save a plant, it should be processed the means containing copper.
Also strongly also various wreckers can do much harm to a hyacinth. The greatest danger to it is constituted by flower flies, their larvae gnaw a collum at bulbs. In order to get rid of them, use such means as Tabazol, Aktara. Also which eats its underground part can do much harm to a flower, and the root onions tick is the best of all to struggle with such wreckers mulching of a surface of the soil around bushes. Happens that the inflorescence only appears from the socket and practically at once drops out of it. It can happen because of the stagnation of water in the earth, because of the storage of bulbs in a too cold place or because of early landing.
Leaving after blossoming
After hyacinths fade, they’re bulbous begin to restore the forces. Therefore some time they have to stay in the soil. As soon as bushes begin to wither, all leaving has to come down to a gradual reduction of waterings, before their complete cessation. In addition do not forget to introduce to the soil fertilizers in the third and last time at this time, thanks to it bulbs will receive the necessary amount of nutrients that will favorably affect growth and blossoming of hyacinths in the future season. To understand that there came time to take from the earth, it is possible on foliage which has to become yellow.
We dig out bulbs
It is necessary to take from the soil every year. Otherwise in future season bushes will poorly blossom, and the probability that bulbs will be struck with a disease increases. Also thanks to an excavation of hyacinths which is carried out every year it is possible to reject in due time spoiled and to regularly separate children. Try to dig out bushes before their foliage dies off and will disappear as in this case, it is very difficult to find the exact location bulbs. For extraction of bushes from the earth use a shovel as bulbs are quite deep. The taken bulbous will need washing under a water jet and half-hour pro-etching in Carbophos solution (3–4%), instead it is possible to keep them 10 min. in very warm water (about 50 degrees). After that they are stacked in the shaded well-ventilated place for drying on 7 days, air temperature has to be about 20 degrees.
Storage of bulbs of hyacinths
At this time it is necessary to treat care of bulbs with all responsibility as right now in them there will be a formation of an inflorescence. After bulbs are dried, at them it is necessary to remove the remains of scales and roots. Then they are sorted and spread in boxes (best of all in 1 layer). Too little children it is better to leave on bulbs. If it is not enough, then for their storage it is possible to use packages from a paper on which the signed label is pasted. In storage time of hyacinths allocate 2 stages. Within the first two months of having to be at a temperature from 25 to 26 degrees, and then move away from them to a more cool place (about 17 degrees). Air should not be too dry as because of it can dry.
In order that by 7 days to reduce the first stage of storage, in the first-week landing material needs to be stored at a temperature about 30 degrees. Do not forget that for storage of hyacinths it is necessary to choose a well-ventilated room. And just before disembarkation in the fall in the soil, about 7 days are recommended to sustain them at that temperature which is characteristic of a garden. As a rule, in storage time on bulbs, a large number of little children is formed, in this regard it is necessary to land them to the soil very accurately.
Types and grades of hyacinths with a photo and names
The hyacinth is cultivated both in the open ground and in-room conditions about 400 years. And not so long ago experts considered that there are about 30 types and about 500 grades of hyacinths. However, when there was a reorganization of classifications in botany, the majority of types transferred to another sort. Today there are only 3 types of hyacinths, namely: Hyacinthus orientalis, and Hyacinthus transcaspicus. Thanks to efforts of selectors from these types the set of versions and grades was received. All grades divide in a flower form ― into Terry and simple, on blossoming terms ― late, early and average and also on a color of flowers. In classification by color of flowers, all grades divide into 6 groups.
- Perle Brillante. It is a late-flowering grade which has flowers of a pale-yellow-blue shade, height of a bush there are about 10 oz, blossoming duration ― about 20 days. Marie. An early-flowering grade which blossoming lasts from 16 to 18 days. Flowers possess a dark blue color, and the longitudinal violet strip decorates them.
- Queen of the Blues. Blossoming of this average grade lasts about 15 days, bush height about 15 oz centimeters. Bluish flowers have an ill-defined smell.
- Blue Magic. Bush height at this average grade about 10 oz, blossoming lasts from 10 to 12 days. The color of flowers violet-purple.
- Indigo King. Such late-flowering grade blossoms about 15 days, length of an arrow from 7 to 8 oz. Flowers glossy violet-black shade.
- Bismarck. Blossoming of this early-flowering grade lasts about a half of month, the bush in height reaches from 9 to 10 oz. Light-violet flowers are decorated by a longitudinal strip of more saturated shade.
- Moreno. The early-flowering grade blossoms on an extent of 13-18 days, цветонос in length reaches from 10 to 11 oz. A color of flowers crimson-pink, they have a strip of more dark shade.
- Anna Marie. This average grade has a long arrow ― from 10 – 11 oz, and its blossoming lasts about 15-17 days. Flowers are painted in a gentle-pink shade.
- Gertruda. Blossoming of this late-flowering grade lasts from 13 to 15 days, and it цветонос in height is reached by 9 – 10 oz. Flowers are painted in dark pink color.
- Hollyhock. This late-flowering grade blossoms on an extent of 15-18 days, it цветонос has a height of 8-9 oz. Terry flowers possess a crimson-red color.
- La Victoire. The height of a flower stalk at this early-flowering grade from 9 – 10 oz, on it glossy pinkish-red flowers reveal. Blossoming duration ― from 11 to 12 days.
- Tubergen’s Scarlet. Blossoming of such average grade lasts a little longer than a half of month. The height of a flower stalk about8 – 9 oz, flowers saturated-red, can be terry.
- Arentine Arendsen. In height the bush of this early-flowering grade reaches 8 – 9 oz, it blossoms from 15 to 18 days. Flowers are painted in white color, can have a cream shade.
- Snow Crystal. At this late-flowering hyacinth white terry flowers. Blossoming duration ― 13–18 days, and stalk length ― 10 – 12 oz.
- Madame Sophie. Blossoming of such average grade lasts 13–15 days, length of its stalk ― from 8 – 9 oz. Terry flowers possess a white color.
Yellow and orange hyacinths
- Yellow Hammer. The arrow at such average grade in length reaches 9 – 10 oz, it blossoms from 13 to 15 days. The flowers painted in saturated-yellow color by the end of blossoming burn out.
- The city of Haarlem. Late-flowering grade duration of blossoming from 15 to 17 days, length of a flower stalk ― has from 10 – 11 oz. Yellowish flowers at the end of blossoming become pale cream.
- Oranje Boven. Blossoming of such average grade lasts about a half-month. On the flower stalk 8 – 9 oz long apricot and salmon flowers which have a dark pink edge flaunt. Most often the first blue grades, and then ― white, pink, red, lilac begin to blossom. And orange and yellow grades blossom after all.