This plant as Begonia belongs to the most well-known and the numerous genus begonia of the family. This genus includes about 1 thousand species of various plants that can be found in the mountains in natural conditions, and they prefer to grow at an altitude of 3-4 thousand meters above sea level, they are also common in tropical rainforests and subtropics.
And these plants are found in the mountains of India, the Malay archipelago, the Himalayas, Sri Lanka, and Western Africa. There is an opinion that begonia comes from Africa, and then this plant got to America and Asia. Today in Africa grows more than 1/3 of all species of this plant.
Features of begonia
In addition to existing in nature about 1 thousand species, there are about 2 thousand hybrids of this plant. In this regard, the average description of the plant simply does not exist. Plus, these plants in different classifications are divided into decorative-flowering and decorative-deciduous, deciduous and evergreen, perennials and annuals, creeping and tall, rhizomatous and tuberous. Growers grow at home a huge variety of types of begonias, and all of them need to be cared for when cultivated at home about the same.
Care of begonia plant outdoor and at home
Begonia, grown at home, needs constant. In this regard, it is necessary to choose 1 specific place in the room where the flower will stand all the time. This place should be well lit, but the plant should not be exposed to direct sunlight. Decorative-flowering species particularly light-loving, in this regard, for their placement is recommended to choose a window sill Western or Eastern orientation. Best of all, the plant feels at an air temperature of 18 degrees at any time of the year. However, in the summer it is able to withstand some temperature increase.
Since this plant is tropical, it needs high humidity. However, it is not recommended to moisten the leaves of the flower from the spray, because, after this procedure, spots of brown color are formed on its surface. In order to increase the humidity (especially in winter, when the air is dried by heating devices), you need to turn the pallet and insert it into a larger pallet, then a container with a flower is installed on top of it. Around the inserted pallet it is necessary to pour expanded clay and wet it, thus it is necessary to watch that it was constantly moistened.
Begonia needs space, in this regard, when choosing a place for it on the windowsill, where there are other plants, it is necessary to take this fact into account. Also, this flower needs systematic ventilation, while it must be protected from drafts and excessively high or low air temperatures. If these conditions are not met, the flower will begin to wither, as well as reset the If begonias wax are propagated as a whole sheet, then on its reverse side it is necessary to cut the main veins. leaf plates and flowers.
Soil and pot selection
Before proceeding to the direct planting of begonia, you must choose the most suitable pot for it. For such a plant, it is recommended to choose a small pot, which should be made of ceramics. Thus, the diameter of the container should exceed the value of the root system of the flower by only 3-4 centimeters. If it is planted in a larger pot, the plant may suffer from waterlogging of the soil, and in this case, it will bloom later. Ready soil mix for planting can be bought in a special store, but if you want you can cook it with your own hands. Connect leaf soil, sand, peat, turf ground (you can substitute hummus), taken in the ratio 2:1:1:1. Soil acidity should be approximately pH from 5.5 to 6.5.
The container intended for planting begonias on 1/3 is filled with drainage material. Then it is necessary to lay a three-centimeter layer of charcoal that is needed to prevent the development of rot. After that, the capacity to put the flower together with a lump of earth and will only fill all the void with soil substrate. When the plant is planted, it needs to be watered. It is recommended to plant begonia in spring from the second half of March, after the level of illumination and the duration of the day will be suitable for its growth. If the plant is tuberous, it needs preliminary germination. To do this, the tubers are placed on top of the substrate in a box (not buried) and removed in a normally lit, cool (16 to 18 degrees) place with a humidity level of 60 to 70 percent.
How to water
If begonia is grown in room conditions, it just needs to be watered properly. This plant loves moisture, but it does not need frequent watering. It is much more important than the humidity is high enough, otherwise, the tips of the leaf plates will begin to dry. However, in the summer heat begonia should be watered more abundantly, but it is necessary to avoid stagnation of liquid in the root system. Watering should be water at room temperature, which should be defended for at least 24 hours. Watering is recommended only after the top layer of soil dries to a half centimeter depth. In winter, the plants should be watered less and moderately, if you have tuberous species, then at this time of year, they are not watered at all.
In order for begonia to grow and develop normally, it needs to be fed in a timely manner. To start ornamental-flowering species, it is necessary after a period of budding. Feeding is carried out 1 every 2 weeks and use for this liquid complex fertilizer for flowering plants. When the formation of ovaries begins, the plant will need fertilizing with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers (Ovary, Bud, Pollen). Fertilizers containing nitrogen should be fed only decorative-deciduous species, otherwise, the flowering of decorative-flowering species may not begin at all.
How to transplant
In order for the plant to develop normally, it must be systematically transplanted. Transplantation is carried out at the beginning of the spring period before the growing season begins. The fact that the plant needs a transplant, say its roots, which begin to appear from the drainage holes.
The plant should be removed from the container and carefully remove the remains of the substrate. Then, the roots should be dipped in a solution of potassium manganese, the color which should be light pink. After that, the roots should be carefully washed, removing the remnants of the soil, using well-defended water.
Then the root system is inspected and those areas where there is rot are removed. After the root system dries, the plant should be planted in a larger container. How to do it correctly as described above. After the transplant, begonia should be put in her usual place. The first time it will need frequent watering.
Begonia in winter
Evergreen species have a weak period of rest. Tuberous species need a fairly long period of rest. Features of care for begonia indoor in winter, when there is a period of rest, depends on the species. Shrub, and also decorative kinds for this time put in a place where air temperature has to be from 15 to 22 degrees and there is high humidity (for this purpose it is possible to hang up the humidified rags on hot pipes of heating or to get the humidifier).
From the middle of the autumn period, begonia leaves the tuber species of this plant begins to prepare for a period of rest. Leaf plates they dry up and die, in this regard, watering these flowers need less. After the complete withering away of the above-ground part of the container with plants, it is necessary to rearrange the darkened cool (from 10 to 15 degrees) place for the whole winter.
Methods of reproduction of room begonia
To propagate such a plant can be seed or vegetative (stems, leaf cuttings, division of the Bush or tuber or rhizome) way. The easiest and fastest way is vegetative.
Growing begonias from seeds
To grow begonias from seed can be quite easily and quickly. Sowing is carried out in the last days of February or the first of March. For that small seeds should be spread on the surface of the substrate (not repaired). Then the container should be moved to a well-lit, warm place, pre-covered with a film or glass.
To water, the crops should be through the tray or by means of a spray. After the first seedlings appear, you should remove the shelter for good. Pick after plant formed 3 or 4 of these sheet plates. After 8 weeks, young plants can be transplanted into individual pots. Such begonias can begin to bloom in the first year, but in order for this to happen, they often need additional lighting.
For propagation of hardwood species used division of the rhizome. This procedure is performed in the spring. For this, it is necessary to pull the flower from the soil and a very sharp knife to divide the rhizome into several pieces, each Zelenka must have roots and at least 1 escape or kidneys. Places of slices should be sprinkled with crushed charcoal. Then divided planted in individual containers.
The tuber of an adult plant can also be divided into several parts. Then we have to wait until the cut is slightly dry and purity their crushed charcoal. Then divided planted in individual containers.
The propagation of begonias from cuttings
The simplest of all vegetative ways of reproduction is cuttings. From a Bush, it is necessary to cut off the cuttings having 3 or 4 leaf plates. That on slices there was no rot, they should be processed by means of charcoal. Then the stalk should be planted in a mixture of leaf and peat soil and sand (1:1:1).
The container is placed in a well-lit warm place in which there is no access to direct sunlight. The cuttings require moderate watering, so it is necessary to moisten the soil only after the soil dries to a depth of 1 to 2 centimeters. Rooted cuttings can be immersed in a glass of water. Roots will grow after about 4 weeks.
Reproduction of begonia leaf
Since most species are a quite large and thick sheet of the plate, then they can propagate leaf cuttings. In this case, both the leaf plate as a whole and it’s part will be suitable for reproduction. If are propagated as a whole sheet, then on its reverse side it is necessary to cut the main veins. Then the sheet plate is placed on the notched side on the surface of moist sand, which needs to be heated up.
After that, it is fixed in this position. Watering is carried out through a pallet. After about 8 weeks of those places that are cut, the roots will appear, and after some time, young plants will begin to grow. The strengthened grown-up young begonias should be separated and landed in the soil mixture consisting of the deciduous earth, sand, and peat (1:1:1).
Diseases and pests
On room, begonias can settle aphids, red spider mites, and nematodes. Ticks and aphids suck the juice from the plant, as a result of this, it loses its decorative effect and slows its growth and development. To combat aphids, use the Malathion or Actellic, this requires 2 or 3 treatments with an interval in 1-1,5 weeks. And for the control of ticks, use a tool such as Derris, Decis or other insectoacaricide. When infected with nematodes, the plant will have to be thrown out, since it is impossible to get rid of them. To know that the begonia infected nematodes can be bleached sheet plates and nodules on the root system.
Begonia is prone to diseases such as gray rot, black root rot, Botrytis, real or false powdery mildew. To cure the plant will help Fundazole, Quadris, Bordeaux liquid, Fast or other means of similar action. Also, this plant is susceptible to infection and incurable viral or bacterial diseases, for example, bacterial wilt, cucumber mosaic, tomato spot. The infected specimen must be destroyed.
Sometimes it happens that the sheet plates begin to dry up. The reason for this is that the room is too warm and dry air, as well as excessively scarce watering. In this case, you should make watering the begonias and place it in a cool place, the pot should be put in the inverted pallet (for details see above).
Begonia turns yellow
It happens that rings or spots of begonia yellow color are formed on the surface of the leaf plates ― this is a sign of infection of the plant with tomato spot or cucumber mosaic. Your copies should be destroyed. If the leaves turn yellow and droop, the reason for this is that the plant is too cold, and the soil contains too much water. Wait until the substrate in the pot dries well, and then move the flower to a warm place.
Begonia Types with photos
Begonia Maculata is a species that includes subspecies with leaves of different shapes. Some round, others oblong, twisted like a shell or oblique-heart. Always present on the leaves or pattern in the form of variegated-strewn with colored spots, or bright contrasting patterns. Inflorescence produces a loose brush with flowers on a drooping peduncle. Likes bright spot, but not Sunny place. Avoid sudden changes in lighting. In summer, put a little bit away from the window, and in winter the opposite is closer to the glass.
In the warm season to water the plant regularly , but without waterlogging the soil. When watering, protect the leaves from the water, to avoid the appearance of brown spots. Winter watering is moderate.
Feeding – once a month, from March to October, to make complex fertilizers for ornamental plants
It needs high humidity but does not tolerate spraying. In this case, you can use a humidifier in the winter to protect from the dry air of heating batteries.
Begonia Maculata reproduces: by dividing the Bush or leaf. In the first case, take a strengthened Bush with leaves 3-5 centimeters. In the second case, either part of the incised sheet, laying on the wet sand and pressing it. Alternatively, leaf with the stalk in water that covers the shoot at 1 centimeter, while water is continually changing. When the cuttings appear leaves, it is planted in the ground.
The birthplace of this flower of Eastern India. It is considered one of the most beautiful. Breeders used this species to create a variety of decorative-deciduous varieties, as well as hybrid forms. The plant has a rhizome that is thickened, and its spectacular large leaf plates are bare or slightly pubescent in width reach 20 centimeters, and in length ― 30 centimeters. Their heart-shaped form is asymmetric, the edge of them is uneven-toothed or wavy. The color of the leaves can be brown-bronze, crimson-velvety or purple-red, sometimes on their surface, you can see spots of silver or purple-red color. There are hybrid forms, leaf plates which are almost black, and on their surface are crimson spots. During flowering, there are pink flowers that are not of special decorative value.
- Cartagena ― oval leaf plates, which are wrapped with a shell, painted in a dark green color. The Central part of the leaf is dark brown, but with age, it changes its color to plum. On the green part of the leaf plate, there are spots of silver color, which have a light pink glow.
- Silver Greenhart ― silver leaf plates are oblique-heart-shaped, they also have a green-emerald border with small dots of silver color.
- Chocolate cream ― leaf plate spiral-twisted and its Central part is painted in a rich plum color. The rest of the leaf has a silver color with a pinkish tint.
- Evening Glow ― sheet plates have an average value, and their Central part is painted in a rich crimson color. From the center of the sheet, crimson veins diverge brownish-green. The leaves have a crimson edge.
- Hallelujah ― has large leaves, which spiral twist at petioles. They are painted in light purple with a silvery sheen. The Central part and the edge of the leaves of cherry color, while between them there is a fairly wide strip of saturated green color, on the surface of which there is a huge number of silvery small spots.
In addition to those varieties mentioned above, growers and others. For example, large popular following varieties and hybrids: Perle de Paris, regal, Minuet, silver Corkscrew, black Feng, November frost, Lillian, red Tango, Titica, Benicia, Dewdrop, charm, etc.
Begonia bowerae “tiger”, or begonia Bauer
The birthplace of this plant in Mexico. The Bush is low (no more than 25 centimeters), has creeping shoots and leaf plates of pale green color, on the edge of which there are spots of brown or black color. On the reverse side of the leaves is pubescence. Unremarkable pale pink flowers are part of the loose drooping inflorescences. This species is rarely seen in the wild. Thanks to experts, a large number of very beautiful varieties were born.
Cleopatra ― on the surface of these leaf plates the hairs are light colored, and they can change its color with the change of lighting. The wrong side of the leaves of Burgundy or red color.
This begonia is semi-shrubby, and its homeland ― the tropical forests of Brazil. At home, the plant can grow up to 100 centimeters in height. It has bamboo-like, erect and bare shoots. Oblong egg-shaped leaf plates have a serrated edge. In length, they can reach 20 centimeters, and in width ― 7 centimeters. On the surface of the dark green front side of the leaves are small spots of silver color, with the reverse side ― pale green. The stems are coral color. They carry flowers, which are part of the inflorescences in the form of a brush. Popular variety:
Alfalfa ― large green leaf plates have a serrated edge, on their front side there are spots of silvery color, and the reverse side has a red color.
President the Carno-thyroid leaf plates at the base are dissected and their edge is slightly serrated. The leaves reach a length of 30 centimeters, and the width is 15 inches. They are painted green and there are whitish spots on the surface.
This begonia is one of the oldest home colors. Her homeland of Mexico. The thickness of the creeping shoot about 4 centimeters. Large finger-dissected leaf plates are placed on petioles of a greenish-yellow color. The length of the leaves does not exceed 35 centimeters, there is a clearly visible venation. Pinkish-green flowers are part of the loose inflorescences having the shape of a brush. Flowering begins in February.
In addition to the data types of the flower are popular: striped, metallic, Bovera, yellow, shiny, Mason, brevialata, red, Liminga, Imperial, etc.
The height of the compact Bush-like does not exceed 60 centimeters. In young plants the stems are upright, but over time they take a basket or polyaniline form. Rounded leaf plates on the edge have a slight pubescence, and in length, they reach 6 centimeters. They can be painted in dark or pale green, and meet with a reddish tint. Small (diameter about 25 mm) flowers Terry or simple, can be painted pink, white or red. They are part of the inflorescences, which are short-lived. The opened flowers please with the beauty not for long and soon fade, but they are replaced very quickly by new. With proper care, good lighting and regular feeding such begonia can bloom in the winter.
- Gustav in Knaak ― height spreading Bush can reach about 30 centimeters. Green leaf plates have a red border. The diameter of Carmine flowers is about 3 centimeters, and they are part of the inflorescences.
- Carmen ― medium size Bush has brown leaf plate with anthocyanin. There are also many flowers of pink color.
- Amber ― the height of the Bush does not exceed 15 centimeters, the leaf plates are brown, and the diameter of the pink flowers is not more than 3 centimeters.
- Bicol ― height shrub reaches 14 centimeters. Leaves are green and white flowers have a light pink border.
- Orania is a small Bush, the height of which is about 16 centimeters. Green leaf plates have a red border. Flowers are reddish-orange.
And still, growers prefer to grow varieties of this species, such as Bella, Rosanova, Linda, Othello, Teicher, Layla, Lucifer, Scarlett, Albert Martin, ball red, Kate Teicher, etc.
Begonia Elatior Hybriden
This hybrid form is considered the most spectacular and has the most abundant flowering. Among household begonias, such a plant is a favorite. The height of the Bush does not exceed 40 centimeters. Shoots are thick, fleshy, form sequentially located leaf plates are cordate. The length of the leaves is about 8 centimeters, while the edge of them is cut. The front side of the leaves shiny rich green color, and the reverse ― matte and painted in light green. Flowers are part of the inflorescences and have long peduncles. Popular variety:
- Shadeland ― tall floriferous Bush is many small deep red flowers.
- Renaissance ― on a tall Bush there are double flowers, red petals which are corrugated.
- Louise ― flowers are painted in pale cream color, have a light pink tide.
- Pichora ― on a low Bush are rich pink flowers that are double.
- Rose ― Terry flowers have a dark pink color.
Also popular among gardeners are varieties such as Kyoto, Goldfinger, Azotus, Berlin, Charles, Cleo, Annabel, Bellona, etc.
Often this species is grown as a garden flower or they decorate balconies and terraces. This flower has drooping stems that descend in cascades, and they are a large number of flowers. For the cultivation of such plants are used baskets, pots or pots. Flowers can be large, medium and small.
- Gale ― on a sprawling Bush there are long hanging (about 30 centimeters) stems, at the top of which are pointed green leaf plates with a serrated edge. Light pink semi-double flowers in diameter can reach 3 centimeters.
- Christie ― spreading Bush consists of rather fragile hanging stems, which in length do not exceed 40 centimeters. Diameter Terry flowers 4 centimeters, and they are painted white.
- Roxanne ― a small Bush consists of hanging stems, the length of which does not exceed 40 centimeters. Four-centimeter diameter Terry flowers are painted in orange.
- Kati ― spreading Bush consists of relatively fragile stems, the length of which is about 30 centimeters. The diameter of the yellow semi-double flowers 3.5 centimeters.
The most popular hybrid varieties of decorative-flowering begonias
- Harlequin ― height sprawling Bush up to 25 centimeters, green leaf plates, and large (diameter 12 centimeters) Terry flowers are painted yellow and have red edges.
- Gold Dress ― the height of the semi-Bush about 25 centimeters. The leaf plates are pale green. Gustomahrovye rosy flowers are quite large (diameter 20 centimeters) and painted yellow.
- Duck red ― tall spreading shrub reaches no more than 16 inches. Leaves are rich green, and peony double flowers are painted in dark red. The diameter of the flowers is about 10 centimeters, while the petals are quite wide.
- Camellia flora ― a small Bush has a height of about 25 centimeters. Leaf plates are green. Large (diameter about 12 cm) Camelidae flowers rose-colored, and their petals that have whitish edges, are imbricate-arranged.
- Crispus the Marginata ― the height of the Bush about 15 inches. Folded sheet plates are painted green and have thin purple ropes. Large (diameter about 12 cm) broad, the flowers are painted in white color and have a rich red border. The side petals are wavy and heavily corrugated.
- AMI Jean Bard ― the height of the Bush is not more than 12 centimeters. Green leaf plates are small in size. The composition of the inflorescence includes 5 small (diameter of about 3 centimeters) Terry flowers with orange color.
- Dayana Vinyard ― the height of a small Bush about 20 centimeters. Leaves pale green. Large (diameter about 20 centimeters) thick flowers have a white color, as well as wavy folded petals.
- Marmorata ― height, semi-spreading Bush about 20 inches. Terry large (diameter about 12 centimeters) flowers are painted in scarlet color shade, and on their surface, there are whitish strokes.
- Feuerflamme ― Bush height does not exceed 20 centimeters. Leaf plates are green and veins are crimson. Small (diameter about 3 centimeters) semi-double flowers have a pinkish-orange color.