Myrtus Communis is the representative of family Myrtaceous and units from about 20 to 40 types. In wild conditions, the myrtle can be met practically on all continents, namely: in the USA in the State of Florida, in Europe at the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, in Western Africa and in North America. This sort is provided by low evergreen trees or bushes. The integral sheet was opposite to each other plates to the touch leathery.
Short description of cultivation
Flowers grow from bosoms of leaves, they are brought together in short clustery inflorescences, they can be a part of bunches or grow one by one. Such plant enjoys wide popularity at flower growers, and it is applied in medicine and perfumery ― from stalks and foliage extract essential oil. If it is correct to look after a myrtle, then it will grow very long in house conditions. Still interesting the fact that culture differs in phytoncide effect.
- Blossoming. In the first half of the summer period.
- Illumination. Light has to be bright but scattered.
- Temperature condition. During the spring and summer period ― from 18 to 20 degrees, and in winter time in the room do not have to be warmer than 10 degrees, but it is better if there are about 5 degrees.
- Watering. From spring to fall the plant should be watered plentifully right after the top layer of a soil mix in capacity dries out. At a cold wintering watering has to be very poor and rare, but it is impossible to allow full overdrying of an earth lump.
- Air humidity. Throughout all growing season systematically humidify a bush from the sprayer with tepid water. In winter time it is not necessary to spray it.
- Fertilizer. During the spring and summer period, a myrtle regularly feeds up 1 time in 7 days, for this purpose use complex mineral fertilizer. In winter time it is not necessary to feed up it.
- Dormant period. It is observed in the winter time. If the bush costs in a northern part of the room, then the duration of a dormant period will be about 3 months, and at placement in the southern part of the apartment ― its duration about 6 weeks.
- Cutting. The forming cutting is carried out every year at the beginning of a growing season.
- Change. Very young bushes should be replaced every year, at the same time adult copies ― 1 time in 2 or 3 years.
- Soil mix. Sand, peat, clay, cespitose and humous soil in the ratio 1:2:2:2:2. And for landing it is possible to use the substrate consisting of sand, the peat, humous and cespitose soil, at the same time all components take in equal shares.
- Reproduction. Propagation by cutting and in a seed way.
- Mean insects. Whiteflies, mealy scale insects, scale insects, thrips and web mites.
- Diseases. Problems at the cultivation of a myrtle can arise at the violation of the rules of watering or because of excessively dry air.
- Properties. The myrtle is considered a curative plant which by the efficiency can compete with antibiotics.
Care of myrtle in house conditions
Because the myrtle needs a large amount of bright light which has to be obligatory disseminated, it is recommended to be raised on the western or east window sill. If it grows at a window of northern orientation, then its blossoming will be poorer. And if to place it on the southern window sill, then in the warm season the bush is necessary shading from direct sunshine.
In the summertime, the flower can be moved to the street, at the same time he should choose such a place which will be protected from the midday burning beams of the sun. A myrtle accustom to bright light gradually.
Throughout the spring and summer period, the bush should be contained in the cool place (from 18 to 20 degrees) because culture negatively reacts to heat. In winter time the myrtle is placed in the cold place (not higher than 10 degrees), at the same time it is the is best of all at this time the plant feels at a temperature about 5 degrees.
In case during the wintering the bush is in heat (higher than 10 degrees), at it can fall down all leaves. The room where there is a flower, surely systematically air.
For watering, it is necessary to use exclusively soft water, and it has to be well defended (it is not less than 24 Parts). In the spring, in the summer, and in the fallen culture needs plentiful watering which is carried out at once as the top layer of the substrate will dry out. At a cold wintering watering should be reduced, however you watch that the earth lump in a pot did not dry up at all. Also, track that in the soil mix liquid did not stand. In case of the earth lump after all dried up, capacity together with a bush is immersed in the container with water.
Humidity of air
The increased humidity of air is necessary for culture, in this regard in spring, summer and autumn time the bush is systematically humidified from a spray, using for this purpose well settled and soft water. During the cold wintering, it is not necessary to humidify it
During the spring and autumn period a myrtle it is regularly necessary to feed up, for this purpose use fertilizer for houseplants. The regularity of fertilizing has to be ― 1 time in 7 days.
If the myrtle grows on a northern window sill, then the duration of a dormant period will be equal to 3 months. If to grow up it at the southern window, then the dormant period will be shorter, to be exact, about 6 weeks.
Culture needs regular scraps. If not to cut off a bush absolutely, then its form will be pyramidal, at a scrap of side escapes the tree is formed and if to carry out cutting of the top escapes, then the myrtle will have the bush form. Experts do not recommend, very often to cut off side escapes the matter is that a trunk at a plant quite weak, and at frequent a nipping blossoming becomes poorer. At cultivation in room conditions culture differs in very rapid growth, all for 2 years the dense and effective plant can be created from a small bush at you.
Change of a Myrtus Communis
Very young plants are replaced systematically every year. And adult copies replace less often, to be exact, 1 time in 2–3 years. During change do not fill up to a soil mix the trunk basis. For landing and change it is possible to use several various substrates:
- sand, the humous, clay, and cespitose soil undertake in the ratio 1:2:2:2;
- connect sand, the cespitose, humous and peat soil which take in equal shares;
- simple greenhouse earth.
To avoid stagnation of liquid in the root system of a plant, at the bottom of a pot make a good drainage layer.
The foliage of a myrtle ordinary can make sick and a headache sensitive people.
Ways of reproduction
Cultivation from seeds
Fill capacity to the soil mix, on its surface, it is necessary to distribute evenly seeds which powder with a thin layer of the same substrate. For crops use почвосмесь, consisting of sand and peat or peat and vermiculite. Crops of seeds are carried out in землесмесь which is previously watered, and then spilled solution of fungicide medicine. Crops from above cover with glass (film), systematically air them, if necessary water and keep in the cool place (about 19 degrees).
The first shoots have to seem 7–15 days later. And when they will create the first couple of real sheet plates, they should be unstuck plants in separate pots which fill with the substrate consisting of the peat, cespitose and humous soil and also sand (1:1:1:1).
After the sword-play growth of seedlings can stop for some time, but then everything is normalized. When to the root system of plant it becomes close in pots, they are replaced by a transfer method in larger capacities then provide them the same care, as to adult plants. The first blossoming will begin only at five-year age.
Reproduction of a myrtle shanks
Propagation by cutting can be carried out twice a year: in January and in July. For this purpose prepare semi-lignified shanks which length can vary from 50 to 80 mm, more than a half of sheet plates it is necessary to cut off, at the same time those which remained, shorten, it will allow reducing moisture evaporation.
For the best rooting, the place of a cut is recommended to be processed the means stimulating the growth of roots. On rooting shanks land in boxes or flat dishes which fill to a soil mix, consisting of the sheet soil and coarse sand. Capacity with shanks is covered with glass (film), they are removed in the shaded place and provide them regular watering and airing.
For the best rooting air temperature is maintained at the level from 18 to 20 degrees. At shanks roots grow 20–30 days later, then they are landed in separate pots, in the diameter by the reaching 70 mm which fill with the substrate consisting of peat, cespitose and soil humus and sand (1:1:1:1). To stimulate blossoming, the myrtle needs plentiful watering and a nipping.
After the root system of the grown-up, it becomes very close in a pot, it should be passed in another capacity which has to be a little more precious. The first blossoming of a bush which grew from a shank is observed in 3 or 4 years.
Leaves of a myrtle turn yellow, fall down and are twisted. If the myrtle lacks light, then its escapes become extended, and foliage grows faded and small. If lighting is excessively bright, then sheet plates will lose gloss, will turn yellow and will be twisted. Foliage can fly in case the plant is in too warm and badly lit room.
Leaves of a myrtle fall down. If the earth lump in a pot completely dries up, then from a bush all foliage can fly. In this case truncate stalks half, regularly humidify a bush from the sprayer and increase profuseness of waterings. Later about a half-month growth of new foliage will begin.
If the bush constantly is in heat, then because of it on it mealy scale insects, thrips, whiteflies, web mites, and scale insects can lodge.
Than the myrtle is useful?
The myrtle exterminates a bacterium and microbes, from it even tubercular and diphtheritic sticks cannot escape. Such a culture does air cleaner, and it exterminates a streptococcus and staphylococcus. It is used during the treatment of flu and ORZ.
Types of myrtle with a photo and names
In house floriculture most often grow up a myrtle ordinary (Myrtus communis) with the short branched trunk covered with the exfoliating scales of the bark of red-brown color. Leaves are green, ovate-ланцетные, glossy, leathery, with a pleasant aroma. Flowers white or light pink with the acting stamens, fruits are red-black berries.
Blossoms from June to August. Popular: Mirtus Tarentina is a compact bush with berries more small, than at an initial form, but them much more, than at a myrtle ordinary; at a variegated version on green leaves the creamy-white drawing.
Also the Myrtus Apiculata – a bush or a tree with the exfoliating brown bark under which a trunk of cream-white color is interesting. Leaves are dark green, ellipse, opaque. White single flowers blossom in July-August, black-red fruits are edible.
Tree with brilliant green leaves with a crinkled edge. This look the steadiest of myrtles.
Upright bush with flowers of a pinkish shade and red edible berries. Has a motley version with a white and cream border on edge of leaves.