The monocotyledonous plant Haemanthus is the representative of the Amarillisovye family. In nature, it can be met in the territory of South America. This sort unites more than 40 different types. To Rod the name Haemanthus was given by Pitton de Tournefor, it is connected with the fact that at of a standard type flowers possess a saturated-red color, the word is translated from Greek as “a bloody flower”.
Karl Linney in 1753 described a plant, at the same time he left the name former. At flower growers the look гемантус enjoys the greatest popularity white flower (Haemanthus albiflos), in the people, it is called still “cervine language” or “an elephant ear”.
Short description of cultivation Haemanthus
- Blossoming. From July to August.
- Illumination. It is possible to grow up both in a slightly shaded place and at bright diffused light.
- Temperature condition. From 18 to 22 degrees.
- Watering. Throughout the vegetation period substrate in a pot is moistened right after its top layer dries up. Throughout a dormant period, it is not necessary to water a flower.
- The humidity of the air. Well grows at any level of humidity of the air.
- Fertilizer. Throughout the vegetative period of fertilizing carry out 1 time in 15–20 days, for this purpose use mineral complex fertilizer for bulbous plants. During the dormant period,
- Haemanthus does not need fertilizing.
- Change. The bush is replaced seldom, namely, 1 time in 4 or 5 years, do it in the last days of February or the first ― March.
- Reproduction. Affiliated bulbs, sheet shanks and in a seed way.
- Diseases. Root decay and стаганоспороз.
- Mean insects. Scale and web pincers.
- Properties. In the bulbs of a Haemanthus, poison contains.
Features of a Haemanthus
Unlike other representatives of the Amarillisovye family, Haemanthus albiflosis an evergreen plant. It grows all the year round and does not lose the decorative effect even in winter time. And at other types of a Haemanthus in winter time, the dormant period is observed. The form bulb can be ovoid or pear-shaped, in certain cases, they are flattened from sides.
In the diameter of a bulb reach about 12 centimeters. On a bush, a small amount fleshy of the sheet plates possessing a green color and the rounded-off ends grows. Height and powerful peduncle and foliage can reach about 20 centimeters.
On each of bulbs about three couples of sheet plates can be created, at the same time over one season, there is a formation of only one couple. The surface of foliage can be smooth, sticky to the touch or covered with the omission. It is placed in couples and hangs down symmetrically.
The fact that many flower growers take for a flower of a Haemanthus actually is not a flower, but the bunch of spherical shapes consisting of the stamens of yellow color collected in an umbrella-shaped inflorescence.
They are surrounded by juicy bracts which there are 4 pieces, at the same time they are painted in the same color shade, as stamens, namely, in orange, red or white. The color of stipules and stamens depends on a look and a grade of a plant.
The beginning of blossoming falls on the middle of the summer period, at this time the plant is decorated by flowers externally similar to openwork pompons. The plant fades late fall. After гемантус begins to emit pollen and nectar, it has a characteristic not palatable aroma.
The self-pollinated flowers form an ovary which is presented by the red-white round berries in the diameter reaching 10–20 mm. They quickly lose viability.
Leaving for Haemanthus in house conditions
Haemanthus differs in the unpretentiousness and indiscriminateness in leaving that considerably facilitates its cultivation in house conditions. Those flower growers, that already grew up it, claim that it needs the same leaving, as succulent plants.
The flower normally grows and develops at air temperature from 18 to 22 degrees. It has no dormant period, in this regard in winter time it is not necessary to rearrange a plant to a more cool place. However in winter months from 10 to 12 degrees are better to keep defoliation grades and views in the room with air temperature. In the summertime, the bush is recommended to be taken out on fresh air, at the same time for it choose such place which has reliable protection against a draft.
This plant can be grown up both in small shading and in a well-lit place, at the same time it will be equally good grow. Best of all window sills of the east, western and northeast orientation are suitable for it. The southern window also will be suitable for its cultivation, but in this case, in midday hours it will need shading from the scorching beams of the sun.
The substrate in a pot is moistened right after its surface dries up. You watch that in the root system of a bush stagnation of liquid as it can become the reason for the emergence of decay on a bulb was not observed. Carry out a gradual reduction of watering, at the same time late fall during a dormant period which duration of 4-8 weeks, a bush is not watered absolutely. For watering use the thawed, well settled or filtered water which temperature has to be close to room.
Humidity of air
The plant does not need high humidity of air therefore systematically it is not necessary to humidify it from a spray. And to clean sheet plates from dust, they need to be wiped with the humidified sponge sometimes.
For fertilizing of a Haemanthus it is impossible to use organic fertilizers as it reacts to them very badly. Best of all for this purpose mineral complex fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and potassium approach.
Also for fertilizing it is possible to use fertilizers for bulbous plants. Fertilize a flower since the beginning of the vegetative period and before it blossoms, with a frequency of 1 time in 15–20 days. Throughout a dormant period, the plant does not need fertilizing.
Change of a Haemanthus bulbs
The adult plant is replaced quite seldom, to be exact, 1 time in 4 or 5 years. During this procedure at a parental bulb separate children. Change is recommended to be carried out in the last days of February or the first ― March as this time is the share of the beginning of the vegetative period and therefore the bush takes roots very quickly.
For a Haemanthus, it is necessary to choose a low and wide pot which is filled with the substrate consisting of the cespitose, sheet and humous soil and also sand which take in equal shares.
Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of capacity, it will help to save a plant from the stagnation of liquid in the soil mix. The flower does not like to sit too deeply therefore during change its bulb is buried in soil substrate on only 1/3 part. If to put in one capacity at once a little bulb, then, as a result, you receive magnificent and very effective bush.
Reproduction by shoots of the plant
For reproduction of a Haemanthus use shoots, a seed way, and sheet shanks. The simplest of these ways is reproduction by shoots. During a change of a bush, they are separated from a maternal bulb and landed as independent flowers in separate pots.
Pay attention to what is separated and only those children who have own foliage and backs land. Shoots get accustomed quickly enough, and the first blossoming of a young bush can be seen 3 or 4 years later after landing.
Reproduction by a sheet shank
It is much more difficult to grow up a new bush from a sheet shank, than from the child, but it is quite possible. From an adult, bush cut off the lower sheet plate with the fleshy basis. Powder the place of a cut with pounded charcoal and leave a shank on 24 h in the open air that it could dry up well.
For rooting the shank should be landed in a mix from sand and peat, then it is put to the warm place and systematically moderately watered. The implanted shank is replaced in the pot filled to a soil mix for an adult Haemanthus (you see above). The bush which grew from a shank will blossom for the first time 3 or 4 years later.
Cultivation from seeds
Seeds гемантус, grown up in room conditions, make multiple copies very seldom as they keep good viability absolutely not for long. If you could collect seed material in time, then evenly distribute it on a surface of the humidified soil substrate (it is not necessary to powder from above with the earth), from above capacity is covered with glass. If you will be lucky, and you show shoots, then for the first time they will blossom only 5 or 6 years later.
Diseases and wreckers
Haemanthus differs in high resistance to diseases. However if it is wrong to look after him, then he then can get sick. For example, the defeat of a plant fungal diseases and emergence of decay on the bulbs can be connected with the fact that it is watered very often or excessively plentifully.
In rare instances the flower can strike стаганоспороз (red decay, or a red burn), Hippeastrums and Amaryllises are subject to this disease generally. Symptoms of the disease are orange-red strips and specks on sheet plates.
Cut off all struck parts of a bush and spray it with special means, for example, the copper oxychloride, the Bordeaux liquid, the copper vitriol or other medicine containing copper, used for a fight against fungal diseases.
Rearrange a bush to such place which is well lit, but is protected from direct beams of the sun, and as for watering, it is necessary to moisten substrate in a pot so that in it there was no stagnation of liquid.
In certain cases, flower growers ask a question because of what their externally healthy Haemanthus does not wish to blossom?
Blossoming can be absent in case during the vegetative period the plant did not receive enough water or optimal conditions during the dormant period if the defoliation type is grown up were not provided to it. For the period of rest, the bush is rearranged to the cool and well-lit place and practically not watered at all.
Most often on scale or web pincers lodge, most often it occurs in summertime in hot days. If on a flower scale that, as a rule, lodged they hide in sheet bosoms and on a back surface of foliage. Humidify a wadded disk in alcohol or soap solution and remove with it wreckers from a flower, then it is carefully washed out under a warm shower and wait when it completely dries. Then carry out processing by Carbophos or other means of similar action.
If on a bush web pincers lodged, then it is possible to find them on a small faded dot on foliage and on a thin web. If there is a lot of wreckers, then on sheet plates the spots of dark color which are gradually turning yellow and drying up are formed. For extermination of ticks use acaricide means, for example: To the actor, Fitoverm or Aktellik.
Types and grades of a Haemanthus with a photo and names
From all types of a Haemanthus enjoy the greatest popularity at flower growers such as Haemanthus coccineus and Haemanthus albiflos. However still often call also Scadoxus, these plants are very similar at each other and are related.
As Scadoxus is a part of the Amarillisovye family too and grows up them in room conditions practically also as well as Haemanthus, will be given the description of some species of this plant below.
This evergreen plant differs in high decorative effect. It’s smooth thick, wide, a lingual form sheet plates are painted in dark green color, in width they reach to 10 centimeters, and in length ― about 20 centimeters, on an edge eyelash are located.
Powerful has a height of about 25 centimeters. On tops of flower arrows, spherical umbrella-shaped inflorescences of white color which decorate tips boots of a golden shade are formed.
From all grades of this look, Prince Albert enjoys the greatest popularity ―: in comparison with a basic look at such grade of an inflorescence of the bigger size, and they possess a bright orange color.
Sheet plates with tops of red color in height reach about 50 cm of Tsvetonosa at a look spotty, red effective inflorescences decorate boots of a yellow color. Perianth petals are quite big. At cultivation in room conditions blossoming of such plant is observed not annually, and inflorescences in autumn time are formed and rather quickly wither.
At a bush with long cuttings sheet plates are located in 2 rows, along with a median vein at them there pass longitudinally located folds. The height of peduncle about a half a meter and inflorescences in the diameter reach about 20 centimeters. The umbrellas of saturated-red color having a diameter up to 50 mm are their part.
This version is similar to Haemanthus albiflos, however it on the peduncle and a back surface of sheet plates has an omission.
This plant is created by selection. Length of sheet plates about 0.45 m, on their surface are specks of brown color. The height of peduncle only about 15 centimeters, on their tops big red inflorescences are formed.
Or Scadoxus puniceus. Foliage at such plant leathery with a wavy edge. Red inflorescences in the diameter reach up to 10 centimeters.
Or Scadoxus multiflorus. Sheet plates at this look wiry. On long peduncle, big inflorescences of a red or light pink shade are formed.
Haemanthus Scadoxus Katherinae
This version enjoys wide popularity at flower growers. The height of a false stalk about 15 centimeters, on it, sit thin and long sheet plates. In the last summer weeks on a flower inflorescences of red color are formed.