Herbaceous perennial plant of the Dendrobium Orchid is a member of the Orchid family. From the Greek “Dendrobium” translates as “living on a tree”, this is due to the fact that this plant is an epiphyte, but among the species of this genus, there are lithophytes that live on stones.
This genus includes more than 1,200 species that can be found in the wild in the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, China, Oceania, and New Guinea. All these species can be very different from each other as the shape and color of the foliage and flowers, and the manner of placing flowers on the stem, flowering time and many others.
The brief description of cultivation
- Flowering. Its duration is from 2 to 3 months.
- Illumination. Needs a lot of bright light, which must be scattered, do not allow direct sunlight to hit the Bush. Daylight hours should be at least 12 hours.
- Temperature regime. During active growth in the daytime ― from 20 to 25 degrees, and at night ― from 16 to 21 degrees. Types of cool content in the spring and summer during the day need a temperature of 15 to 18 degrees, and at night ― about 12 degrees. In winter, the air temperature in the daytime should be about 12 degrees, and at night ― about 8 degrees. The night temperature must vary from day 5 to 7 degrees.
- Irrigation. In spring and summer, moisten the substrate in the pot should be abundant, and during the rest, period watering should be scarce.
- Air humidity. Required high humidity (50 to 80 percent). Therefore, Bush should often be moistened from the sprayer with lukewarm water. In winter time capacious with a flower best put on a tray, filled with wet crushed stone.
- Fertilizer. During the growing season (April–September) flower every 15 days fed with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer for orchids.
- Period of rest. It comes after the Bush will fade, and the timing depends on the type of Dendrobium.
- Transplantation. Systematically every 3 or 4 years. Autumn-flowering species are transplanted immediately after the appearance of young shoots, and spring-flowering ― when flowering is over.
- Reproduction. Cuttings or division of the Bush.
- Pest. Spider mites, thrips, scale insects, mealybugs and whiteflies.
- Diseases. Root rot, leaf spot, powdery mildew, and brown rot.
Caring for the Dendrobium Orchid in the home
Features of cultivation
Since there are so many different types of orchids Dendrobium, which differ among themselves agricultural techniques, because of this it is simply impossible to describe the rules of growing in room conditions for all types of such plants at once. The fact is that almost every species has its own “whims”, which must be taken into account when growing it. However, there are several General requirements of Dendrobium:
- Growing any of the species at home is a very complex process.
- Grow each of the species should be on those agrotechnical rules that apply to it, otherwise, the plant may die.
- All species prefer bright light, which should be necessarily scattered. The flower must be protected from direct sunlight.
- Also, all kinds of extremely negative reaction to the draft.
- Growing in natural conditions flowers do not need a period of rest.
Remember that each of the species of this plant has its own requirements for air temperature. For example, all of them are divided into 6 groups according to the optimal growing temperature. At the same time, each of these groups has special requirements for the temperature regime.
However, on average, for those species that are considered thermophilic, during the growing season in the warm season is the optimal air temperature during the day ― from 20 to 25 degrees, and at night ― from 16 to 21 degrees. In winter, during the day the room should not be warmer than 20 degrees, and at night ― colder than 18 degrees.
Types of cool content in the warm season during the day need not too high temperature (from 15 to 18 degrees), at night it should be about 12 degrees. And in the winter months in the daytime about 12 degrees, and at night ― about 8 degrees.
Most species and varieties of this plant need bright lighting, but the flower must be protected from direct scorching rays of the sun. For it to grow and develop within normal limits, the length of the day should be only about 12 hours.
Irrigation and humidity
Dendrobium watered almost the same as other species of orchids. In the spring and summer watering should be abundant, but to allow the stagnation of liquid in the substrate cannot be, because of this, the root system may appear rot. Water should be filtered or well-settled water at room temperature.
Such a plant needs high humidity, the level of which should be from 50 to 80 percent. In order to provide the plant with the necessary level of humidity in the summer, it is recommended to move it outside and moisten the foliage as often as possible. In winter, a container with a flower is placed on a pallet filled with moist gravel.
Transplant of Dendrobium
Dendrobium transfers extremely painful, so they are carried out as rarely as possible, about 1 every 3 or 4 years. Flowering species in spring are transplanted as soon as they fade, and autumn-only when the growth of young shoots begins.
Pot choose not very large, while it can be made of any material. Experienced growers usually choose unglazed pots of clay, and those who first grow an Orchid, usually put it in translucent plastic pots.
On the bottom of the tank, it is necessary to put some heavy small stones that it was more stable. On top of the stones make a drainage layer of foam or expanded clay. Then pour a layer of bark of large fraction and accurately transfer in a new pot a flower, all emptiness fill with a new substrate.
For planting orchids, experienced growers are advised to use a purchased substrate for orchids. As a rule, for planting such a flower take a mixture consisting of charcoal, sphagnum, pine bark, and coconut chips. However, it can be grown in a substrate consisting of only one bark.
Feed the Orchid only during intensive growth in April–September 1 every 15 days. For this purpose, a liquid complex fertilizer for orchids is used. Note that the concentration of the nutrient mixture used should be half as low as recommended by the manufacturer.
If you use a nutrient mixture of a higher concentration, because of this, the root system may suffer, which will lead to the death of the plant. In addition to this General rule for all dendrobiums, varieties and types of warm content need regular fertilizing with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer even in winter, make such a nutritious mixture into the substrate 1 every 4 weeks. At the same time, types of cool content are fed with nitrogen fertilizer twice or three times a month.
Rules of care during flowering
Each type of Orchid Dendrobium blooms in its own time, with the duration of flowering can vary from 2 to 3 months. In order for the plant to bloom in a timely manner, it is recommended that the temperature drops at night and during the day at 5-7 degrees. The easiest way to achieve this in the summer, and in winter it is complicated around the clock heating of the room.
When grown in the winter Dendrobium Nobile in order to make it bloom, some growers resort to an unusual method. They do not water the Bush until new growth appears. When this growth in height reaches 20-30 mm, and it will grow own roots, watering of a flower renew.
After the growth is equal to the old bulbs, a gradual reduction of irrigation until it is completely stopped, while the temperature is reduced to 12 degrees. Watering is resumed only when the formed buds begin to bloom, otherwise, instead of flowers, children will develop.
Dendrobium Orchid Care After Flowering
Dendrobium after blossoming is over, begin to gradually reduce watering until complete cessation, the peduncle is cut off, and the Bush is transferred to a place where it is always cool. In this case, he will be able to have a good rest and gain strength before the new flowering.
Growing in nature Dendrobium does not stop growing even in winter, but in the middle latitudes in the cold season because of the poor lighting it hibernates, at this time it stops growing. Of course, from this, he will not die, but experts do not recommend this to allow. In winter, when daylight is very short, Bush definitely need to illumination, and the best way to use fitolamp.
The fact is that the Orchid growing in nature does not have a period of rest, it is constantly busy with something, as a rule, the flower increases either the foliage or the roots or flower stalks. If your flower in the autumn fell into hibernation, then you should not disturb it. In this case, stop watering for a while and transfer the Bush to a cool place.
Methods of reproduction
The division of the Bush
Grown in room conditions Orchid Dendrobium can be propagated by dividing the Bush. Carry out the division of the plant during transplantation after it fades. Adult large Bush is removed from the container and divided into parts after the root system is freed from the substrate.
When you do this, you first need to gently untangle the roots, and then those that are tangled very badly cut with sharp disinfected tools. During division, it is necessary to consider that each part should have must have 2 or 3 Mature bulbs and the same number of young Rostov. Place slices processed garden pitch or sprinkled with charcoal powder.
Cut the pseudobulb from the parent Bush and cut it into cuttings, the length of which should be about 10 centimeters. Places of slices coat with a garden pitch. Take a tightly zipped plastic bag and fill it with a moistened sphagnum. In each package, place one or two cuttings, then they are tightly fastened and removed in a warm (22 to 25 degrees) and well-lit place, note that the light must be necessarily scattered.
Every day ventilate the cuttings and make sure that the sphagnum is always moist (not wet). Rooted cuttings after 15-20 days, after which they can be planted in separate pots. Grown from the bushes for the first time will bloom after 2 or 3 years.
Types of Dendrobium with photos and names
There are a lot of different species and varieties of orchids Dendrobium, so select the best or the most beautiful is very difficult. Below will be described those species and varieties that are most popular among gardeners.
This species is among the most beautiful, it comes from Vietnam and the Himalayas. The length of the shiny thick pseudobulbs about half a meter, in the second year of growth they form peduncles, which is formed by 1-3 large (about 10 centimeters in diameter) flower saturated color.
In the natural species, the petals are painted white and have pale purple tips, the color of the lips is cream with pink edging, and the throat is dark purple. Flowering in hybrid varieties can be observed several times a year.
This species is a Japanese endemic. It is a reduced copy of the noble Dendrobium, the height of the Bush is only about 15 centimeters. This kind of compared with the restless demanding to care, so it is recommended to pay attention to inexperienced growers.
This epiphyte comes from the Eastern Himalayas. Its lush, drooping racemose inflorescences reach a length of about 0.3 meters, they can be generated up to 50 highly fragrant flowers, the sepals, and petals which have a deep yellow, and the lip orange-yellow, hairy and fringed at the edge. This species has a variety ― Dendrobium cyst: its petals are painted in cream or white.
The homeland of this plant in Australia. Almost cylindrical stems are thickened in the lower part, and in the upper part ― they form wide leaf plates. On the peduncle grows 5 or more fragrant pinkish flowers with a spotted lip. The growth of the Bush continues throughout the year, and flowering it is observed in February–March.
This epiphyte hanging shoots in length reach about 0.3 meters (sometimes more). The length of the leaf plates from 7 to 12 centimeters, they are pointed and have an oblong-lanceolate shape. Amethyst-purple single flowers rounded lip with brownish-purple spots. The column is painted white and the duster is purple. Flowering is observed in June–July.
In nature, this species is found in Australia, its flowers are very similar to the Orchid Phalaenopsis, which influenced the choice of name. The length of pseudobulbs with powerful leathery leaf plates is about 0.7 m. On a high peduncle, about 10 (sometimes more) large Burgundy flowers are formed in diameter reaching up to 80 mm. Each of the flowers blooms for about 8 weeks, while old pseudobulbs can bloom several times. Flowering Bush in November and December.
It is best for gardeners-beginners and is suitable as Dendrobium Phalaenopsis or Dendrobium Nobile.