Washingtonia received the name in honor of the first U.S. President George Washington. This sort is the representative of family Areca and unites only 2 views, namely: Washingtonia robusta and Washingtonia filifera.
Features of a Washingtonia
Palma Vashingtoniya represents a tree which in height can reach about 25 meters, and in the diameter ― to one meter. However, it reaches such sizes only in nature. On a trunk top at it sheet plates which possess a fan form to grow. Scape length about one and a half meters, on it, are available thorns which are directed towards a trunk. At cultivation in house conditions the palm tree very seldom blossoms.
In Mexico and the USA fibers of foliage of this palm tree used for weaving of baskets, and make flour of its fruits. In the culture in Europe, it is grown up on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. At cultivation in room conditions, it is necessary to consider that this plant needs a cool and also space. After the palm tree becomes very large, it is recommended to be moved to the street, but only in that case when weather conditions are favorable for this purpose.
Short description of cultivation of Washingtonia
- Blossoming. Palm tree Washingtonia is cultivated as a decorative and deciduous plant.
- Illumination. The plant needs a large amount of bright light which has to be obligatory for scattered. Duration of a light day ― about 16 h. In winter time it needs additional lighting.
- Temperature condition. During the spring and summer period ― from 20 to 24 degrees are (not above), in winter time ― about 10 degrees.
- Watering. During the spring and summer period, soil mixture in capacity humidifies after its surface dries out. In cold season watering has to be very poor and rare, but redrying of an earth lump cannot be allowed.
- The humidity of the air. It has to be raised. Throughout the vegetative period humidify foliage twice a day and also it is necessary to wash out it 1 time in 7 days a damp sponge. Even for an increase in humidity of air about a palm tree, it is possible to put the open vessels filled with water. In winter time it is impossible to humidify a plant.
- Fertilizer. It is necessary to feed up a washingtonia from spring to fall regularly 1 time in 15 days, fertilizer is recommended to be used with the high content of iron. In cold season it is not necessary to feed up a palm tree.
- Dormant period. It begins late fall and comes to an end in the first spring weeks.
- Change. In the springtime of a plant replace only if necessary. Until the palm tree is seven years old, it is replaced 1 time in 2 years, up to fifteen years ― 1 time in 3 years, and more adult plant ― 1 time in 4–5 years.
- Soil mix. It has to consist of peat (or hummus), sand, the sheet and cespitose soil (2:1:2:4).
- Reproduction. Grow up from seeds.
- Mean insects. Shchitovki, whiteflies, web pincers and mealy scales.
- Diseases. On a root system decay because of violation of the rules of a watering can appear or if in capacity there is no drainage. If in the room air excessively dry, then tips of sheet plates begin to dry up.
Care of a Washingtonia in house conditions
Most often flower growers are mistaken that a palm tree the washingtonia needs a large amount of bright light. However, it is necessary to remember that the plant needs to be protected from direct sunshine. Light has to be bright, but disseminated, at the same time duration of the light day has to be not less than 16 hours a day.
For cultivation of a palm tree, it is recommended to choose windows of east or western orientation. In cold season or at insufficiently long light day provide to a plant lighting, for this purpose it is possible to use fluorescent lamps.
In summertime the washingtonia is recommended to be moved to the street, for it chooses a well-lit place, however, it has to be protected from direct beams of the sun and also from a rain. The room where there is a plant needs to be aired regularly, however at the same time it needs to be protected from drafts. It needs a large amount of light both in the summer and in the winter.
During the spring and summer period, air temperature indoors can vary from 20 to 24 degrees. If in the room very hot (about 30 degrees and above), then it is necessary to transfer a palm tree to that place where is cooler. Wait until it cools down, then make its watering and moistening from a spray. In winter time in the room, it has to be cool (about 10 degrees). To worry that at such low temperature the palm tree can die it is not necessary as in wild conditions on the homeland she is capable to transfer short-term decrease in temperature to minus 7 degrees.
Throughout the vegetative period, watering is carried out systematically right after the top layer of a soil mix in capacity dries out. Remember that are equally harmful to a washingtonia palm tree both stagnation of liquid in a substrate and redrying of an earth lump.
In an autumn time after at a palm tree, the dormant period will begin, and it will be rearranged to a more cool place, begin to humidify soil mix in a pot very seldom and use for this purpose a small amount of water.
However, it is impossible to allow redrying of a lump of the earth. As a rule, at this time watering is carried out later two or three days after the top layer of earth mix dries out. For watering use warm and well defended (not less than 24 h) water.
Humidity of air
That the palm tree developed and grew in normal limits, it needs to provide high humidity of air indoors. In this regard, it should be humidified every day from the sprayer (best of all twice a day), and near it, it is recommended to put the open vessel filled with water. Also, it is regularly necessary to delete from a foliage surface dust, using for this purpose a damp soft rag or a sponge.
Such plant cultivated in room conditions surely regularly feed up. Fertilizers are recommended to be used with the high content of iron. Fertilizing carry out from spring to fall off 1 time a half-month. It is impossible to introduce in substrate fertilizers throughout the entire period of rest, and at once after a change of a bush and when the washingtonia is ill.
Experienced flower growers recommend removing the turned yellow sheet plate still before it completely dries up. Thanks to it there will be a small delay of natural dying off of the following sheet plate. In case you decided not to delete the drying-up foliage, then it can be not cut off at all. In this case, the dried-up leaves will effectively hang down around a trunk.
Change of a palm tree washingtonia
Replace it only an emergency. The matter is that she quite badly transfers changes, and she needs some time after holding this procedure to get accustomed. At this time insignificant delay of growth is observed. To seven-year age change of a palm tree carry out 1 time in 2 years, in 8–15 years ― 1 time in 3 years, and older copies subject to this procedure of times in 4–5 years.
Replace a plant in springtime before there comes the summer. Best of all for this purpose the early spring approaches. As a washingtonia quite large plant, the tubs made of a tree are suitable for its cultivation.
Suitable soil mixture has to consist of sheet, cespitose and peat (or humous) soils and also sand (2:4:2:1). In soil mix for adult palm trees, it is recommended to add organic chemistry (about 5 kilograms).
If during growth of a plant there is a stripping of its backs, then in a tub it will be necessary to pour a fresh substrate.
Cultivation from seeds
Make multiple copies a palm tree a washingtonia in house conditions seeds. Crops are carried out to springtime, to be exact, from March to April. Fresh seeds, therefore, they are recommended to be used for crops have the highest viability. Remember that the seed material, the bigger amount of time to it is more senior it is necessary for germination and the lower it viability.
Just before crops, it is recommended to file seeds a little a file, after that they are immersed in water on 24 h. Seeding of seeds is carried out to the substrate consisting of sand, sphagnum, and sawdust (1:1:1) to which add a little charcoal.
Seeds buried in soil mixture at only 10 mm. Before being engaged in the preparation of a soil mix, surely steam sawdust. Humidify crops and cover them from above with glass (film). Transfer capacity to the warm place (from 28 to 30 degrees).
In case it is correct to make everything and to use fresh sowing material, then the first seedlings will have to seem in 15–20 days.
The sword-play of seedlings is held after there pass 7 days after formation at them the first real sheet plate. For a sword-play use a separate glass which is filled to a soil mixture, the consisting of the sand, sheet and cespitose soil (1:1:2).
The first sheet plates at the plant are not cut, cuts appear only on the eighth or ninth leaf. 1 year of growth later at a young palm tree, 4–5 sheet plates will be created already. Do not forget that the sword-play needs to be held very carefully!
Washingtonia palm disease
If it is wrong to look after a washingtonia, then with it there can be the following problems:
- Rotting of a root system. Decay appears as a result of regular stagnation of liquid in the soil mix. Maybe in a tub, there is no drainage or it is very bad.
- Obletaniye of foliage. If the humidity of air very low palm tree begins to throw off the foliage.
- Tips of leaves become brown. This problem is also connected with excessively low humidity of the air.
- Mean insects. Most often on a palm tree whiteflies, mealy scales, scale or web pincers lodge.
Types of a washingtonia with a photo
Sort such view from the east part of the United States of America. In the mature height of a palm tree can reach about 20 meters. A trunk direct and equal, and on its top glaucous sheet plates of a fanlike form grow. On a third, the cut sheet plates in length reach about 200 cm, on each of them about 80 shares are formed. On an edge of foliage long threads of white color grow. The color of flowers white.
The height of such a tree-like perennial plant in nature reaches about 30 meters. Greenish sheet plates possess a fan form. Foliage is cut on 2/3 parts of the length of a plate. The scape is painted in a pale red shade. White flowers.