The original house plant Columnea differs in fluffy escapes of small length which hang down. They then covered smooth leaflets of various form. For the appearance of flowers the plant is known also under the second name – a goldfish. The plant whose photo is given below treats ampelous flowers, that is suitable for cultivation in suspended cachepots at the expense of the hanging-down stalks.
The flower is formed in bosoms of leaves in the central area of escapes and is presented in the form of long tubules with 1 number of petals on edge. Leaving does not give many troubles, but demands knowledge of necessary conditions of keeping.
Flower Goldfish: photo and description of grades
Columnea consists of more than 400 types growing in house and wild conditions. Relatives are such plants Gloxinia, Kohleria, Saintpaulia, Streptocarpus. House flower growers can grow up only about 30 grades of a goldfish. Most often it is specially removed hybrids.
This grade grows non-traditional, rising over roots. The grade received such name as the plant reminds a volcano. Surface their smooth, and color deep green. The hybrid grade has flowers of almost identical length with leaves, but they are painted in red shades.
Columnea red has an appearance, cardinally other than other grades. Rods are thickened, and the direction of their growth – up. Therefore the plant reminds a semi-bush more. Leaves are large, an oval form, in bosoms, is located single, alternating on the branch course. The coloring of leaves light green, and on a bottom side – shapeless claret spots. Buds are strongly trimmed. They are located in medium-sized inflorescences and are painted in bright red color at the expense of what the plant and received the name.
Differs in the long creeping branches reaching in length of several meters. Leaves couple centimeters long of monophonic green color arranged in pairs, grow in the parties, opposite to the center. Flowers red with the pointed extended petals.
Has lignified escapes up to 1 meter long with lanceolate pair leaves. The plant has saturated green coloring, and the smooth surface of leaves adds glossy gloss. Flowers of an orange-red shade about 5 cm in length blossom in intervals between sheet bosoms.
Plant Goldfish of this grade has the long lianoid escapes covered with red fibers. Leaves of a green shade with a red omission of the lower surface. They have the extended lanceolate form and reach up to 10 cm in length. Blossoms plentifully on all length buds of a yellow shade.
The Ecuadorian look differs in the stalks growing directly with woody bark. Leaves of unusual coloring: a sheet plate green with glossy gloss and the tip is painted in bright red color. Blossoms small yellow buds after which there are big berries of saturated lavender coloring.
This grade is characteristic of wild places and grows in a type of a fan of large leaves on wood branches. Coloring contrast with a red top and a green basis. Buds are in an inflorescence at the basis of leaves.
Leaves of this unusual look differ in the expressed rugosity and dark coloring. They quite big size (up to 15 cm) are also covered with the long omission. Flowers have dark claret or yellow coloring.
Is suitable for house cultivation thanks to compactness. Thick leaves have the involved streaks and are painted in a uniform green shade, covered with a small pile. Flowers blossom under leaflets and have small sizes. Orange coloring.
The large reinforced leaves with the expressed streaks located on upright stalks are of the decorative value of this look. Flowers are hardly noticeable under foliage and have a yellow-orange shade.
Differs from other grades in a semi-shrubby type of growth of stalks to a half a meter long. Leaves thin and long up to 12 cm with a glossy outflow on a surface. Flowers of pink color with the white omission.
The beauty of a look is shown during blossoming when inflorescences of tubular flowers of a rich violet shade, in a tone of the lower surface of leaves are dismissed.
Long meter escapes are densely trimmed and hang down with a cachepot or creep horizontally in a pot. Very small roundish leaflets hardly have 1 cm diameter and are covered with reddish fibers. Flowers red with an orange strip below.
The Panama type of Arguta has long escaped to one and a half meters. Reinforced trunks are covered with dense omission and hang down under the weight of foliage. Sheet plates of a Goldfish of Argut small and narrow, are pointed at the ends and have a brilliant surface. Large flowers appear in bosoms of leaves, therefore, are located dense groups on escapes. Color: from red in the basis to orange with yellow impregnations on petals.
Grows in a species of a bush with upright escapes on which long leaves and red flowers with a yellow pharynx. Columnea of magnificalistya of a majestic goldfish medium-sized are located and have an opaque velvety surface. Flowers much more sheet plates also have red-yellow coloring.
Escapes grow mainly directly, hanging down only under the weight at a mature age. The leaves extended up to 10 cm long slightly curved with a smooth surface. Flowers of coral coloring with red fibers have the same length, as leaves.
The look is appreciated by flower growers motley coloring of sheet plates: contrast white patterns at the edges on a green background of a core. Flowers of a plant classical form to a red color scale that brings bright paints in the appearance of a flower even more.
On long escapes, the extended leaves of monophonic green coloring with hardly noticeable omission grow. Flowers larger in sizes are also painted in red or orange shades.
Goldfish plant is from Mexico. Escapes from a sprawling bush with partially hanging down branches. Leaves are extended in length and have dense omission: the external surface is covered with white fibers and internal – red which are condensed lengthways a streak. The plant has large flowers in bosoms of leaves also with a dense pile. Diverse coloring: on the main yellow background large spots of a claret shade are allocated.
Carnival grows in a type of the thin hanging-down escapes covered with elastic leaflets on short scapes. The plant – specially removed plant which hybrid kind can have both a smooth and fleecy surface of leaves with a red shade. Large buds are painted in yellow, and on edge of the blossomed flowers, there is a reddish border.
The branching trunks form a compact plant with the glossy pointed leaves. Flowers of yellow-orange coloring with strips and the allocated streaks.
Columnea Lava flow – an ampelous flower. It is covered with reddish-green small leaves with a velvet surface. The streak blossoms on petals plentifully red buds with a yellow pattern in the form of a grid lengthways.
How to care for a goldfish plant
Almost all types of a plant do not require great attention of the flower grower, it is only enough to provide it the correct conditions and to look after.
Columnea hybrid – a thermophilic plant which prefers moderate temperature in the range from 23 to 27 degrees. During a summer season at hot heat, it is not obligatory to lower especially temperature because higher than 30 rather easily transfer short-term temperature increase.
Important! From the middle of fall a plant gradually it is necessary to accustom to the lowered temperature. If in the summer the pot was on a balcony or in a garden, then with early autumn when at night less than 15 degrees, it is necessary to bring it to the house, and per day again to take out within a week.
So there will be gradual acclimatization to room conditions. Then it is necessary to lower temperature to 16 degrees and to keep a flower in such conditions prior to the beginning of spring.
A goldfish plant grows in nature on high trees, receiving, thus, a large amount of light. In the apartment, such conditions can be created on the well-lit window sill in a southeast or southwest part. Leaves it is better to protect from direct sunshine, especially grades with a smooth surface. At a northern window or in the depth of the house on condition of lack of additional lighting the flower will receive not enough light that will be shown by lack of blossoming and excessively extended escapes.
Humidity of air
The increased humidity favorably affects the condition of a flower, creating the additional power supply and improving the gas exchange of leaves.
Council! it is necessary to spray a plant daily or every other day, using in advance waste water of room temperature.
It is useful to wash out smoothbore grades sometimes under a shower, washing away from the dust. It is better for such procedure not to subject the trimmed types, or very carefully to dry on all length of trunks in the dark and warm room (2 times a year are not more often).
Leaving Goldfish plant
Regular leaving of appropriate quality will become a guarantee of the beauty of a plant and magnificent blossoming.
In the winter the majority of types after blossoming need the rest period. For this purpose lower ambient temperature, reduce watering and stop fertilizing. Lighting during this period is usually reduced in a natural way. The plant, growing in house conditions, needs a large amount of bright light which has to be obligatory for scattered. During blossoming, it is recommended to provide a plant additional lighting. Remember that it extremely negatively reacts to direct beams of the sun and drafts, in this regard in warm season it is extremely undesirable to move it to the street, and they cannot decorate a verandah, a balcony.
As in nature, this liana grows in tropics in damp forests, it needs high humidity of the air. It is to the most important conditions of successful cultivation of a goldfish in room conditions. In this regard, the flower is recommended to be humidified systematically every day from a spray, also for maintenance of an optimum level of humidity of air it is possible to use a household humidifier. Instead, it is possible to take a wide pallet and to fill it with a large pebble, then in it pour in water, and from above establish capacity with a liana.
You watch that the bottom of a pot did not adjoin to liquid. Thanks to it around a plant natural evaporation of moisture will be observed throughout the day. For watering and spraying, it is necessary to use soft water which does not contain lime, otherwise, can suffer very strongly or even die. A substrate in a pot is moistened only after its top layer dries up. After a while after watering surely merge the water which accumulated in a pallet.
During active growth the plant needs complex fertilizing twice a month. Before active growth, the fertilizers rich with nitrogen will approach. They stimulate the formation of new escapes and buds. During blossoming the plant needs to be watered with the complex fertilizing containing all necessary minerals.
Universal structures or fertilizers will be suitable for saintpaulias. Before a dormant period, the frequency rate of fertilizing is reduced to 1 time a month. It is desirable to choose fertilizer as a part of which there is bio humus or other natural substances.
Change is necessary approximately a month after the end of blossoming or a month before the beginning of an active growth phase. The expanded plants as strongly dense escapes do not promote the formation of flowers need the change of a pot. The pot is chosen the small depth and at 3-5 cm wide more by the plant bases. The bottom is filled up surely with a drainage layer. The friable soil is complemented with sand or perlite and wood components, as for orchids, creating similarity of growth on a tree.
It is possible to buy ready substrate for saintpaulias, having added it with bark, or the soil for the epiphytic plants. At change stimulation of branching of escapes and formation of a flower of an accurate type requires a nipping of trailer sites of trunks. It is better to carry out such a procedure in the fall that will allow creating new points of growth during rest.
Why Columnea does not blossom: how to force to release buds
If all conditions of leaving are met, and all the same there is a question why does not blossom Goldfish, it is possible to use the following recommendations:
- Flower kidneys are stuffed up in several months after the end of the previous blossoming, but only at a low temperature. It is necessary to hold a plant at 12 degrees not less than a month at night, temperature increase to 17 degrees is admissible in the afternoon. Such differences are a powerful stimulator of the formation of buds. After an increase in light day and application of fertilizers blossoming will surely begin.
- Food or light in the depth of a pot cannot be enough for the expanded flower that also should be meant in the absence of blossoming.
- If and at such leaving there are no flowers, then it is necessary to survey a plant on the presence of diseases.
Wreckers and diseases
- At insufficient humidity indoors on leaves hardly noticeable spider line can appear. It is a result of the activity of pincers. This wrecker leads to yellowing or just leaf fall, leaving naked escapes. Fight against it comes down to processing by antiparasitic liquids and frequent spraying.
- If the soil which is not disinfected insects can appear: plant louse, tripsa. At detection of wreckers at an early stage, there are enough several processings by insecticides. If the disease is already started and after the next cycle of processing insects appear again, then it is necessary to replace the soil with neutralized completely.
- From excess watering, especially during the autumn and winter period, gray decay can be formed. It is shown by gray spots on leaves and stalks. Such places need to be cut off urgently, and to replace a plant, having processed antifungal means for flowers. If the disease is found in the started form, then it is better to cut off healthy parts on shanks and to destroy an adult flower.
How to multiply Columnea
Most quickly and simply it is possible to multiply shanks. Preparation of shanks is carried out in February or March, for this purpose cut off very young stalks. Length of a piece has to be 60–70 mm, remove from it all sheet plates except 4–5 pieces. On rooting shanks land in the humidified soil mix, consisting of a universal substrate and a small amount of peat. Before at them grow backs, keep them in warm (from 21 to 24 degrees) and well-lit place.
In addition, they should provide systematic everyday moderate watering, at the same time do not allow stagnation of liquid in the soil mixture. To learn that rooting took place successfully, it is possible on new couples of sheet plates which appeared on shanks. When it occurs, plants can be landed in individual pots, at the same time use soil mix which is suitable for cultivation of a Goldfish (you see above).
Reproduction by seeds
Cultivation of a liana from seeds ― this occupation more difficult and long. If you, after all, decided on a similar experiment, then consider that seed material has low viability and if seedlings and seem, then most of them can die. Most often only experienced flower growers are interested in seed reproduction. Seeding of seeds is recommended to be carried out in the last days of February, at the same time it is necessary to consider that crops will need hothouse conditions. Fill capacity humidified, consisting of sand and peat, level its surface and evenly distribute on its seeds.
From above they are powdered with a thin layer of a substrate, capacity is covered with a film (glass). It is necessary to keep crops in the warm (from 23 to 25 degrees). Remember that they need to be aired every day, and humidify soil mix only if in it there is a need. The first seedlings can seem 15–20 days later from the moment of crops. As soon as it occurs, capacity needs to be rearranged in well-lit place reliably protected from direct beams of the sun. If necessary highlight shoots a fluorescent lamp. After on seedlings 3 or 4 real sheet plates are created, they will need on individual pots.
Diseases and wreckers
If to water Columnea it is too plentiful either on its stalks or in a root system regular stagnation of water will be observed, then gray decay can develop. As soon as the first signs of a defeat of a plant are found, it is necessary to take a number of measures for its rescue at once. Accurately cut out all affected areas then carry out processing of a root system and places of cuts by the solution of fungicide medicine. Then the bush is replaced in the fresh soil mix.
If the disease is strongly started, and all root system of a bush decayed, then cut off healthy stalks and implant them as it was described above. Quite seldom on a liana, such mean insects, web pincers, plant, and trips a lodge. They can be found on escapes and foliage, and get rid of wreckers special insecticidal medicines.