The Swiss Cheese plant (Monstera) is the representative of the Aroidnye family. This sort unites about 50 types. In nature, they can be met in the territory of Central and South America.
Features of a plant
The name of a sorta monstera came from the word “monstrum”, translated as “monster”, it is connected with the big sizes of a plant and with its frightening appearance. Representatives of this sort ― evergreen lianas and bushes. Their thick escapes are climbing, often there are air roots. Dark green large sheet plates leathery to the touch decorate cuts and openings of various form and size.
The inflorescence represents a thick ear of a cylindrical form, at its basis sterile flowers, and in the top part ― both sexes are located. The monstera is among the most popular plants cultivated in house conditions. It is scientifically proved that the room monstera is capable to ionize air indoors that is a great advantage at the cultivation of such flower.
Short description of cultivation
- Blossoming. Swiss Cheese raises as a decorative and deciduous plant. At cultivation in house conditions, it blossoms extremely seldom.
- Illumination. Needs a large amount of bright, but diffused light.
- Temperature condition. During the spring and autumn period ― from 20 to 25 degrees, in winter time ― from 16 to 18 degrees. You watch that temperature in the room was not lower than 10 degrees.
- Watering. Throughout the vegetative period, watering is carried out right after the top layer of a soil mix in a pot dries out. With the approach, falls are spent gradual reduction of watering, and in the winter ground mix humidified only after it dries out on 1/4 part of depth.
- The humidity of the air. It has to be raised. In hot days it is necessary to humidify a bush from the sprayer every day, however, it is better to wipe sheet plates with the humidified sponge instead.
- Fertilizer. So far a plant young it is not necessary to feed up it. And adult copies feed up regularly from the second half of the spring period and to the last summer weeks. For this purpose alternately use organic chemistry and mineral fertilizers.
- Support. It should be fixed in capacity during landing time or changes of a flower.
- Dormant period. It is not expressed brightly.
- Change. To three-year age the bush is replaced every year, from 3 to 5 years ― the procedure is carried out 1 time, and since five-year age, the plant is replaced in a new pot of 1 time in 4–5 years. However, the top layer of a soil mix in capacity needs to be changed for fresh every year.
- Soil mixture. Young bushes grow up in the substrate consisting of cespitose and soil humus and also peat and sand (1:2:1:1). Is suitable for adult plants, consisting of the deciduous, humous, cespitose and peat soil, and sand (1:1:3:1:1).
- Reproduction. Cuttings, top and seed way.
- Mean insects. Plant louse and web pincers.
- Diseases. All problems which can arise at the cultivation of a monstera are connected with the wrong leaving.
- Properties. Juice of a plant contains poison.
Care of a monstera in house conditions
The monstera needs a large amount of bright light, but it has to be obligatory for scattered. In this regard, it is recommended to grow up it on the western or east window sill. If the flower costs at the southern window, then it will be necessary shading from the sun, and on northern ― it will lack light. If to provide to a plant enough diffused light, then its foliage will be big and with effective openings or cuts. At poor lighting, new sheet plates grow small, and air roots ― thin and weak. It is recommended to move a flower to the new place only as a last resort.
The flower which is grown up in room conditions does not need any certain air temperature. It noticed one feature ― the more warmly in the room, the more intensively the growth of a bush. From spring to fall optimum air temperature for a monstera ― from 20 to 25 degrees. In winter time the bush is recommended to be placed in a more cool place (from 16 to 18 degrees), but you watch that in the room 10 degrees were not colder. The greatest danger to it is constituted by drafts during the autumn and winter period.
In the spring and in the summer watering has to be plentiful, it is carried out right after the top layer of substrate dries out. For this purpose use the soft well-settled water. With the approach of fall, watering is gradually reduced, and in the winter he will see off only after there pass 2 days from the moment of drying-out of the top layer of a soil mix. Remember that equally negatively the plant reacts both to redrying of an earth lump, and to stagnation of water in a substrate. At regular remoistening on roots there can be decay, and on foliage ― specks.
The Swiss Cheese positively reacts to systematic moistening from the sprayer, in this regard it is recommended to carry out it surely. For this purpose use the settled water of room temperature. Foliage needs systematically to be exempted from dust using for this purpose the humidified soft rag.
So far a bush young, he can be not fed up. In order that growth of an adult flower did not slow down, fertilizing is carried out from the second half of the spring period until the end of summer of 1 time in 15 days, for this purpose alternately use organic chemistry and mineral fertilizers.
At cultivation in house conditions the bush should be propped up a lattice or a stick, or to pull foliage a rope. After growth of an old monstera slows down, at it it is recommended to cut off a top for stimulation of growth of side escapes.
At each sheet plate grow air roots, it is impossible to cut off or tear off them at all. These roots are recommended to be lowered in the capacity in which the flower or in the additional pot filled fertile to a soil mix grows. Thanks to it a food of all flower improves. If these roots grow very slowly and do not reach the surface of a substrate in a pot, then them it is recommended to tie with the humidified sphagnum or to ship in the bottle filled with water. If desired it is possible to buy a plastic pipe which has to be wound with dry palm fiber, in it several openings become, and a nutritious substrate is inside filled. Air roots of a flower should be sent to these openings. On tops of sheet plates, droplets in a cloudy day before rain or in winter time before that can be formed.
The monstera growing in nature differs in annual blossoming. If the bush grows in house conditions, then it will blossom very seldom. If the plant regularly receives enough nutrients, then later few years it can release a large inflorescence with both sexes flowers which are a part of an ear with a cream cover. At the ripened fruit the cover stiffens and disappears. Length violet an infructescence about 20 centimeters, externally it is similar to a corncob. They are formed by the small and juicy fruits pressed to each other. They very sweet also have an aroma which is at the same time similar to pineapple and strawberry.
Change of a monstera
For the first two years, the young plant is replaced every year, from 3 to 4 years ― 1 time in 2 years. When the bush is 5 years old, it is subjected to this procedure of 1 time in 3–4 years. However, the top layer of the substrate in a pot needs to be replaced every year with fresh. For change or landing of a young plant use neutral or subacidic ground mix (рН 5.5-6.0) which has to consist of the peat, cespitose and humous soil, and sand (1:1:2:1). The adult bush has to grow in soil mixture with рН 6.5-7.0 which consists of the peat, humous, cespitose and sheet soil and also sand (1:1:3:1:1). The pot needs to be taken large, at the same time at its bottom do a good drainage layer.
At juice of such plant, there are substances the causing inflammations of a mucous membrane and irritation of the skin. Juice not until the end of the ripened fruits can become the bleeding reason in a stomach and intestines and also inflammations of a mucous membrane of a mouth.
Ways of reproduction
Cultivation from seeds
The seeded seeds of a monstera remove to the warm and well-lit place. The first seedlings will have to seem within 30 days. The first sheet plates juvenile, on them, are not present cuts. The first adult foliage is formed on 5–8 month. 2 years later on a bush, there will be no more than four adult sheet plates and to 5 ― juvenile. Seedlings at first dive, landing in individual pots, and then every year replace them.
Cuttings will be seen off throughout all spring prior to the beginning of summer. It is possible to multiply a monstera stem or top shanks, and side shoots. The shank represents a stalk piece with 1–2 sheet plates. Places of cuts process coal powder. On rooting the shank is put in a separate pot, and from above it is covered with glass.
At the bottom it is necessary to make a drainage layer of brick pieces, from above it is filled up with 2 cm layer peat or humus of the soil, and then fill 0,8 in of sand. Watering is carried out regularly to morning and evening, at the same time air temperature has to be 20–25 degrees. After at a shank grow backs, land it in an intermediate pot. 3 or 4 years later the expanded bush replace in a tub or larger pot. That the shank took roots quicker, it is necessary to choose what has air roots.
Reproduction by a top
Old bushes lose the decorative effect because at them fly about the lower sheet plates. In this regard, it is possible to wrap 2 top air roots the humidified moss or twine and to record on a flower trunk. After at roots grow backs, cut off a part of a trunk with 1–2 sheet plates, process the place of a cut coal powder. Land a piece in a pot, at the same time, fill up roots and the place of a cut with the substrate. The old bush also has to start up side escapes, and it will become more magnificent.
If behind a Swiss Cheese it is wrong to look after or not to provide to it optimal conditions for growth, then with it there can be problems.
- Leaves fall down. If lighting too poor, then a plant begins to throw off foliage, and suspension of its growth is observed.
- Spots on foliage. On a back surface of sheet plates, brown specks can appear in a case on bush web pincers lodged.
- Yellowing of leaves. Foliage is painted in yellow color in case the monstera feels the shortage of nutrients. Also, foliage can become yellow, and on it, decay appears from behind regular stagnation of liquid in a substrate.
- Foliage becomes brown. Sheet plates are painted in brown color and become as if paper if the level of humidity of air too low or when to a flower it is very close in a pot.
- The color of young sheet plates pale. If lighting too intensive, then on a bush faded leaves appear, and on their surface spots of yellow color can be formed.
- The bush is extended. If the monstera lacks light, then its escapes become extended, the stalk twists, at the same time new sheet plates grow faded and small.
- Whole foliage. On young sheet plates there can be no cuts because the flower feels the shortage of light or nutrients.
- Foliage dries up and flies. If the sheet plate before falling becomes brown and dries up ― it means that in the room very hot. Foliage flies also in the process of aging, but in this case, it does not become brown.
- Mean insects. Most often on a monstera plant lice and web pincers lodge.
Types of a monstera with a photo and names
This look in nature meets in the territory of a tropical belt from Costa Rica to Brazil. This liana can reach in height of about 8,7 yard. Thin ovoid sheet plates have a width of 20-40 centimeters, and length ― 9,8-21 in. On all surface of a plate, there is a set of openings. At cultivation in house conditions blossoming of this look is observed extremely seldom. During blossoming appears short цветонос on which the yellowish ear, its length of 8-12 centimeters, and width ― 0,3-0,7 in is formed.
Monstera deliciosa borsigiana
In nature, the look often meets in the territory of Mexico. Stalks at it are thinner than at a monstera delicious, and sheet plates smaller (in the diameter up to 11,8 in). The look perfectly grows also in house conditions, and in other rooms.
Sort such as climbing liana from the damp and mountain woods of tropics of Central America. Can grow at the height up to 23 in above sea level. Very young sheet plates possess a heart-shaped form and an integral edge. In process of growth foliage increases in sizes (in the diameter up to 46 in), becomes leathery to the touch, strongly cut and with openings. The ear covered with a cover of white color in length reaches about 9,8 in, and in width ― to 9 in. At the appeared fruits pulp can be eaten, it has pineapple taste and aroma. The height of such a plant in a greenhouse can reach 13 yards, and in house conditions ― about 3 yards. If to provide to an adult flower the correct care, then flowers will appear at it annually. There is a kind of variegata: foliage motley-white, a plant differs in slower growth and higher insistence in leaving.
Either Monstera expilata or Monstera falcifolia. A sort such climbing liana from tropics of Brazil and Guiana, at the same time, meets it in damp forests. Integral elliptic or lanceolate sheet plates the basis not isosceles, their width has about 6 centimeters, and length ― up to 7,8 in. Length of scape is no more than 5 in. During blossoming grows 4 in peduncle on which the low-floral ear about 1,5 in long is formed.
In nature, the climbing liana meets in tropical rainforests of America. The foliage form ovoid, it is similar to the extended egg, its length about 35 in, and width ― to 9,8 in. On a plate of an opening are located unevenly, and it scalene (extends to the lower part of a leaf stronger). Length of an ear of 3,9 in, it is covered by the white cover in length reaching 7,8 in.