That the plant harmoniously grew and developed, it is necessary to know about suitable conditions of its cultivation and reproduction, the correct leaving and also about possible problems which the flower grower can face, growing up it.
Useful properties of a plant
The begonia is valuable both the decorative effect and useful qualities thanks to the availability of the following substances in it:
- oxalic acid;
- organic acids.
Whether you know? Begonias suit Klubenki for consumption: they are nice to the taste and remind citruses.
The plant makes the following impact:
- promotes clarification and improvement of air in rooms (destroys staphylococcus); increases
- immunity; helps with the fight against stressful situations;
- removes stress and fatigue;
- increases working capacity;
- improves mood;
- increases intellectual activity;
- has antiallergic properties;
- serves as an anti-septic tank;
- heals wounds;
- removes spasms;
- absorbs chemicals;
- detains parts of dust on leaves;
- increases the moisture content of air;
- reduces the level of electromagnetic radiation from computers and household appliances.
Description and characteristic of a plant
In a sort of a begonia, there are more than one thousand subspecies. Plants are suitable for disembarkation in flowerpots and on an open bed. Culture in the summer and in the fall, and houseplants — practically by the beginning of winter blossoms. Beefsteak begonia grows in various ways: as the creeping grass; in the form of a high upright bush; as semi-bush.
We provide a description of the appearance of begonia in the table:
|Root||branched; fibrous; tuberous|
|Stem||low, upright, knotty|
|Leaf shape||asymmetric; leaves are whole or dissected into several segments, with a serrated or wavy edge|
|The color of the leaves||at the top are painted in a smooth green tone, as well as a variety of colors with geometric patterns, inclusions, and strokes; at the bottom of the leaves are reddish, brownish or deep purple|
|Flower shape||inflorescences consisting of small, medium or large flowers|
|Color of flowers||solid color (pink, red, yellow, orange, white); framed with different shades.|
Most optimum season for landing fist the beginning of spring, before blossoming or is later.
Whether you know? In the ancient time, soldiers in field conditions polished with leaves of begonias edges of fighting swords.
Choice of a pot and soil
In care of beefsteak begonia, the choice of a suitable flowerpot and also soil is very important. There are principles according to which select flower flowerpots and soil mix for a flower:
- the capacity of the small size approaches, it is a desirable ceramic;
- capacity for the landing of a flower has to be 4 cm more in circles, than its root lump; the
- suitable soil is got in specialized shops or prepare with own hand (2 parts of deciduous soil 1
- part of compost, 1 part of peat and sand mix);
- it is necessary that the acidity of earth structure corresponded to pH 5.5-6.5 indicators.
Optimum temperature and humidity
The beefsteak Begonias beauty does not transfer sharp temperature jumps and also differences of indicators of humidity. For begonias serve as acceptable indicators of comfort:
- summer temperature of contents should not exceed 20–23 °C, and in the winter — it is not below 16 °C;
- year-round indicators of the moisture content of air — 65%.
To support the necessary level of humidity, near flowerpots capacities where pour water have, or flowerpots with supports put on a tray with damp expanded clay or a moss. It is especially relevant in the winter when heating devices work.
Beefsteak begonia needs sufficient lighting, but it is not necessary to allow direct beams of the sun as leaves can get burn. Flowerpots have no on window sills from the sunny side.
If the begonia nevertheless has to be placed in such a place, then to it create a penumbra, using blinds.
In the winter the lack of sunlight is compensated for the account of the use of artificial illumination. Also the plant needs receipt of enough air, therefore, other flowers it is not recommended to dispose to it too close.
Whether you know? Semyon Beefsteak — some of the smallest in the world. The small pinch is capable to give life to three million saplings.
Leaving in house conditions
Home care of a begonia includes the organization of regular fertilizing, optimum watering and timely cutting and change. The special attention to a plant needs to be paid during the cold period.
Feed up to a fist by the following rules:
- bring fertilizing in the form of liquid complex mineral fertilizers twice a month — add them to watering time (medicine needs to be mixed with warm water);
- during the cold period, a flower feeds up once a month.
Watering of a red leaf begonia is carried out the softened settled water, deleting after everyone excess liquid from pallets.
- It is important to humidify a plant by the following principles:
- in the summer watering is carried out by four times a month;
- during high temperatures the soil in a flowerpot is humidified every day;
- from the middle of fall waterings carry out after drying-out of the top layer of earth in a pot;
- during cold weather the begonia is not recommended to be watered often, giving it rest;
- in March the frequency of waterings is gradually increased.
As it is correct to cut off and replace
As begonias very quickly grow, their small stalks are capable to be extended strongly, therefore, leaves become less, blossoming stops and plants lose the decorative effect. To avoid it, it is recommended to do flowers timely cutting.
Important! It is not recommended to use during cutting fist scissors as this tool strongly injures a plant.
As for the change of a begonia, that it is time to replace it, the backs which are looking out of a flowerpot will demonstrate.
The following actions are necessary for the implementation of change:
- change is carried out in March, by each 3–4 years;
- flowerpots choose not deep, is 3 cm more than previous;
- plants accurately get from flowerpots together with an earth lump;
- in a new flowerpot fill up a layer of expanded clay and rough sand (2 cm);
- bush have on the center of a flowerpot and powder with earth mix;
- after a change, the flower is plentifully watered.
Important! Young begonias are admissible to be replaced every 6 months as frequent changes well influence them — they actively grow.
The plant is divided into shanks on the following technology:
- Sharp from backs knife shanks (10 cm), leaving on everyone 2–3 kidneys. Excess leaves delete, too big halve.
- To cuts at each of shanks allow to dry up a little then process the means promoting rooting.
- Shanks contain in the warm place, on light, to them organize regular watering.
- In 2 weeks waterings combine with fertilizer.
- Within a month shanks take roots, and then from them put away caps and provide them plentiful watering.
The technology of reproduction of begonias seeds:
- Landing material is sowed in February days in the prepared capacity for landing. Use the soil mix consisting of peat, sand and the sheet earth.
- From above with seeds put glass then it is placed in the warm room on capacity. Seeds water in the drop way.
- In a week sprouts which gradually temper in the environment are shown, for a while removing the glass.
- After two weeks all sprouts are transplanted on separate glasses.
- In 3–4 weeks each sapling is replaced in a separate pot.
Division of a bush or oil substrate
Reproduction fist is made by the division of bushes or roots the next way:
- Delete old escapes and flowers and also big leaves.
- Everyone a calf has to have at least one kidney.
- Each cut is subjected to processing by wood ashes.
- All divided sit down in the prepared soil mix and well water.
- Flowerpots with young plants in a well-lit room with a temperature from 20 °C have.
During cultivation of a red leaf begonia, there is a possibility of some problems with her health.
Bushes of begonias sometimes are exposed to various infectious and noncontagious diseases. Here some of them:
- Real or false mealy dew. A disease at which leaves and stalks become covered by the small specks which are strewn lightly with whitish mealy powder. In the course of progressing of a disease of a spot increase, become brownish, parts of plants at the big struck areas dry up, leaves fall down, all plant becomes ordinary-looking. Muchnistorosyany mushrooms become an etiology.
- Gray decay. The disease begins grayish sticky spots with a covering of leaves. Progressing, specks increase in sizes then leaves and escapes rot. As the reason for the appearance of a disease serves the excessive humidity. It is necessary for the rescue of plants: to adjust moisture content level in the room.
- Blackroot decay. Roots of begonias are surprised — they gain brown or claret color. Escapes and leaves then they begin to blacken are surprised. The disease develops because of excess moistening and bad drainage, therefore, there is a stagnation of moisture in a pot. It is possible to save to a fist only during removal of its struck roots.
- Bacterial spottiness. An internal part of leaves small, vitreous and watery spottiness is surprised. Further specks get a brownish shade and extend to all bush why he perishes. This violation is not treated — bushes are destroyed, and the earth mix is disinfected. For prevention of defeat bushes periodically irrigate 0.5% with copper oxychloride suspension.
- Ring spottiness. The disease is characteristic emergence on all a bush of concentric strips and specks, necrotic zones. As the reason serves the presence of the tomato virus transferred by parasites flukes. Any treatment of violation is ineffective as it has the ability to be shown further. Therefore the sick plant is destroyed in order to avoid the spread of infection on other flowers.
The Beefsteak begonia is often attacked by various parasites because of what culture badly develops and loses the decorative effect.
- Hothouse plant louse. Yellow, sometimes green wingless parasites up to 2.5 mm in length. Damage is caused by adult insects and their larvae: exhausting juice from the lower part of leaves, they promote their yellowing, suspension in development of buds and to fall of flowers.
- Hothouse trips — the dark-brown sucking parasite 1.5 mm long. Striking a flower, the wrecker does it colorless, with the turned yellow leaves, deforms, promotes a stop in development. Fight against it thus: carry out irrigation of bushes by disinfecting structure (100 g of broth of a celandine or tobacco on 1 l of water) or carry out sprayings by soap solution.
- Sheet nematode. The worm parasitizes on leaves, stalks, and kidneys. Promotes emergence of greenish spots on leaves which become brownish subsequently. Escapes above are exposed to deformation, and the flower perishes. As favorable conditions for parasites serve warm and rainy time and also light soil. Fight measures: at small defeat use Geterofosa solution of 0.2%, at extensive — plants destroy.
Important! Using chemicals at the extermination of wreckers on a begonia, it is necessary to protect airways a gauze bandage or a respirator and to strictly adhere to the summary to medicines.
Thus, the decorative species of a begonia depends only on skillful actions of the flower grower: moderate watering, complex fertilizing, timely cutting and also correct measures for the fight against diseases and wreckers. At observance of all necessary recommendations described above the flower with red leaf, will harmoniously decorate an interior of any room.