Pests Of Houseplants And Methods Of Their Control

Houseplant-Pests

Houseplants are prone to various pest. These diseases are the result of exposure to adverse environmental conditions, as well as the result of inadequate care. This can be: excessive humidity or dry air, too high or too low temperature, lack of fertilizing or excess, the quality of the earth mixture does not meet the required, not a suitable capacity.

Most of the pests are not transmitted to other plants. Sometimes the problem is that the outlets sell greenhouse plants, which are sometimes difficult to adapt to the conditions of modern apartments, as a result, they can develop poorly or lose leaves, indicating that the conditions for this plant are not quite suitable.

If such a precedent takes place, the plant should be removed from the pot and inspect the roots. If the root system is damaged, the plant will have to say goodbye, otherwise, it needs to be transplanted and experimentally established, what is the reason.

Perhaps for this plant enough light or not enough nutrients. The object can be fed and moved to a more illuminated place. If the plant before it stood on a lighted place, it should be moved to partial shade or in the shade.Houseplant Pests

Common pests of houseplants

In any case, it is necessary to check how effective the drainage is and whether it is at all. In its absence, you need to transplant the plant according to the rules. Many houseplants do not tolerate or tolerate temperature fluctuations, as well as the presence of drafts.

This is an important factor that should be considered when keeping indoor ornamental plants or flowers. Dry air, especially in winter, when the heating season begins, can cause significant damage to plants.

It can cause the appearance of thrips and spider mites if you do not do preventive measures. Watering of plants is carried out with water at room temperature and only soft (rain or melt) and only defended.

Fungi that cause spots on leaves

Houseplant Pests

As a rule, affected plants, which is not quality care. Basically, suffer from this: Camellia, Anthurium, certain types of palm trees and orchids. Such lesions are characterized by the appearance of spots on the leaves, and not large. If no action is taken, these spots grow and the leaves begin to die. Methods of struggle are that the affected plants are not sprayed with water, and the affected leaves are removed.

Anthracnose

Houseplant PestsThis common pest can develop in warm and humid conditions, which may be relevant when growing plants in greenhouses. Symptoms are manifested in the form of the appearance on the leaves of plants such as palm trees and ficus, dark brown streaks. Methods of combating such diseases are reduced to the systemic treatment of plants with fungicides and the destruction of damaged leaves. In addition, for a few weeks, stop watering and spraying.

Real powdery mildew

Houseplant PestsThis type of disease appears in dry and warm air. At the same time, different types of fungi can be found on different types of plants. In other words, the fungi that appear on begonia, can not appear on the rose. This mildew affects plants such as hydrangea, begonia, Kalanchoe, cyclamen, chrysanthemum, roses.

The appearance is characterized by the presence of white, easy-to-plaque. This plaque can be found on the leaves, buds, young shoots and flowers. After that, the affected areas begin to blacken and die.

The fungus can quickly move to other plants of the same species. Control methods consist in isolation plant and destruction of the affected areas, after which the plant is treated with appropriate chemicals.

Downy mildew

Houseplant PestsThrives in the moist but cool environment. It can affect certain plant species, such as primrose, calceolaria, and gloxinia. The symptoms are the appearance of non-washable white plaque on the lower part of the leaves. To prevent the appearance of this disease, it is necessary not to water the soil and the air around the plant.

The pest of the plant should not be sprayed with water. Since the fungus lives inside the tissues of the leaf, then spray the plant with various drugs does not make sense.

Blackleg

Houseplant PestsThis disease manifests itself in stem cuttings of many plants, but most of all this suffers pelargonium. It can occur as a result of high humidity or excessive compaction of the soil, which prevents the free passage of moisture. The symptom of the appearance of such a disease is the blackening of the base of the cuttings, which indicates the defeat of its fungus Botrytis.

The affected stalk should be immediately removed and a new one planted, while it is necessary to check that the ground or substrate is not so wet, and the stalk should not be covered with a film or glass.

Gray rot

Houseplant PestsThe fungus of gray rot can appear in conditions of raw and warm air, as a result of not the correct location of the plant, as it is weakened. Most of this pest are prone to plants that have thin and soft leaves. It can be chrysanthemum, gloxinia, cyclamen, and others. The appearance of this pest can be detected by the appearance on the stems and leaves of gray mold, which can rise into the air with the appearance of strong air currents.

The consequence of such a lesion may be darkening and dying of the affected areas. After that, the plant is not sprayed and less watered, and the room is regularly ventilated.

Rust

Houseplant PestsThis pest develops on such plants as a rose, a fuchsia, a geranium, etc. Symptoms of rust can be determined by emergence brown or orange, similar to warts, the pustule located on a top side of a leaf. They can be hooked easily a nail, and on their place light spots appear.

At the defeat of plant rust, it is better to destroy all plant and not just the struck parts. If a plant was very rare and expensive, then it is possible to demand to process a plant system fungicide.

Stem decay

Houseplant PestsThe emergence of such fungus promotes to its fast distribution that leads to plants to death. After that, all plant, together with a pot and the soil is developed. The appearance of this pest can be determined by softening of stalks or all krone then there is a rotting. At the same time, all plant can be struck.

Fight methods very conditional and it will be possible to save a plant hardly, even at an initial stage of a pest. Preventive actions are in containing a plant in normal conditions, at the same time to try not to “fill in” a plant, to support the corresponding temperature condition and to regularly air the room.

Drowning of seedlings

Houseplant PestsThe basis of such pest are fungi which strike the basis of stalks and also roots of seedlings. As symptoms of such service changes of structure of stalks around a root system, therefore, they begin to decay then young plants perish.

Ways of prevention lie in the plane of observance of golden rules of sowing of seeds: seeds land in sterile soil, is not really dense also with optimum watering. As soon began to prove, the young plants right there struck delete, and the others move to the more cool place where the room is regularly aired.

Spottiness of leaves

Houseplant PestsAs the reason for a manifestation of this pest can serve, both fungi, and bacteria. It is shown by emergence on leaves of a dieffenbachia, citrus, a dragon tree and other plants of the becoming wet brown spots. If not to take any measures, then these spots will expand and will merge in a single whole a spot, therefore, the leaf entirely will be struck.

Methods of fight include processing by fungicide and also burning of the struck leaves then the plant ceases to be sprayed and watered within several weeks.

Dropsy

Houseplant PestsThis disease is a consequence of remoistening of the soil in the conditions of small illumination. This reaction by the emergence of dense pith outgrowths on a reverse side of leaves is shown. It is better to remove sick leaves as they will not take the original form, and the plant should be moved to a more lit place with a reduction of activity of watering. In that case, will grow the new leaves absolutely healthy.

Decay of roots

Houseplant PestsTo such disease succulents, palm trees, begonias, a Saintpaulia, etc. are unstable. Symptoms are shown in the form of appearing on leaves or stalks of yellowness then the plant begins to wither. Then the struck places darken owing to what the plant perishes. This pest develops as a result of a fungal problem of roots which develops as a result of strong remoistening of the soil.

It is possible to fight against root decay only at an early stage of its detection and only a surgical method which is that the plant is released from a pot and roots are washed out then, by means of a sharp knife, all struck roots are cut out.

After that the plant changes in a new pot with fresh substrate. The pot with a plant needs to be placed in the lit place, but without direct sunshine. As soon as there are new sprouts, the plant needs to begin to be watered, but not high doses that not переувлажнять.

Black Fungus

Houseplant PestsThe black type of a fungus can appear in places where a plant louse, the whitefly or a mealy scale leave behind sweetish allocations. Symptoms are shown in the form of not a beautiful raid which does not constitute the danger to the plant but closes a surface of leaves from a pass of sunshine that the plant strongly oppresses.

Fight against a black raid consists of mechanical removal by its wet rags, and washing of places is fresher warm water. That it did not occur, it is necessary to process in due time plants from wreckers.

Viral pest of a plant

Viral diseases of a plant are, as a rule, infected at a stage of their reproduction in greenhouses then they get to retail chain stores. The manifestation of symptoms can be various, but generally, also infections slow down development of a plant or a plant develops incorrectly: stalks are bent, and growth is slowed down.

On leaves and stalks of a plant, there can be points or strips of various color. Methods of the fight against such pest do not exist as the reason therefore, it will be better if just to throw out a plant is not known.

How to get rid of Flower Midge

Pests Of HouseplantsIt often happens that experienced and novice gardeners in pots with houseplants appear flower midges. These small insects not only spoil people’s lives, flying everywhere and sticking to food but also cause significant harm to the plant itself. In order to get rid of these harmful insects, you can use a variety of methods, which will be described below.

Flower midges, which are scientifically called Sciaridae, love humidity. Therefore, their appearance can provoke excessively frequent watering of plants when the substrate in the pot does not have time to dry out. As a rule, the appearance of midges occurs in the winter.

Adults do not pose a danger to the flower, but they can irritate the inhabitants of the house. However, the larvae of this insect are quite harmful to the root system of the plant, as a result of which it may even die.

In the case when there are a lot of larvae (that they can be considered in the ground without special devices) without transplantation cannot do. The new soil it is necessary to expose the decontamination procedures and handling special drugs intended to combat Sciaridae.

Remember that with the flower and fruit gnats have to fight in different ways, so find out first what kind of insect you wound up.

Preventive measures

Pests Of HouseplantsIn order to avoid the appearance of flower midges must adhere to very simple rules:

  • it is necessary to systematically loosen the substrate in a flower pot;
  • do not allow the soil in the pot was a long time raw;
  • regularly inspect the flower and remove the dying leaves or wilting flowers;
  • pour only clean water, as “meat”, “coffee” and “tea” water can provoke the appearance of midges.

Don’t forget that the main reason for the appearance of claridon is a waterlogged soil. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to make watering only after drying the top layer of soil at 1-1.5 cm. Watering must be soft water. If you have only hard water, you can soften it by boiling, freezing, settling, and acidification with peat.

Ways of dealing with flower Midge (Sciaridae)

Pests Of HouseplantsThere are several ways that will help in the shortest possible time to destroy all sciarids.

  1. The most economical way is to use the most common matches. For medium-size capacity, you need to use only 4 matches. Stick them in the ground heads down, and then slightly moisten the substrate. It is necessary to conduct the systematic inspection of matches, to do this, pulling them from the soil. As soon as you see that the sulfur is not left on them, then change the matches to new ones. In most cases, for the complete destruction of midges, it is enough to replace the matches 4 times.
  2. You need a weak solution of potassium manganese. It should be used for systematic watering of the flower. But remember that if the concentration of the solution is strong, it can burn the root system of the plant.
  3. Water the affected plant with a weak soap solution.
  4. Clean 3 garlic heads and cut into small pieces. Pour them into a container, where pour 1 liter of freshly boiled water. Infused for 4 hours, the mixture should be filtered. Treat the infusion with a spray of the ground part of the flower, and pour it and the substrate in the pot. It should be noted that after processing in the room will smell of garlic.
  5. The peel from the orange should be divided into pieces and stuck in the contaminated soil.
  6. Garlic teeth cut into pieces. Place them on the surface of the ground, while turning the cutdown.

Aphids on houseplants

Houseplant PestsAny florist, whether he is a beginner or experienced, puts a lot of effort to potted flowers normally grow and develop and at the same time were healthy and beautiful. However, it happens that pests settle on the bushes, because of which their decorative effect suffers, and because of them the plants can become very ill, and in some cases die.

Aphids are one of the most common harmful insects. Therefore, often the grower may have a question of how to quickly eliminate aphids that appeared on the home plant? The most effective and safe methods will be described below.

The aphid is a small insect, which has an oblong body, long legs, while the abdomen is wide and pointed. Most often settles on home colors white aphids, but many other species are wingless and winged. The painted insect can be green, pink, pale yellow and black.

Although aphids and may differ from each other externally, it hurts indoor flowers equally strongly. Such a pest makes a puncture in the shoot or leaf plate and sucks the vegetable juice, which weakens the flower.

The pest is characterized by the ability to adapt rapidly to any habitat, and even incredibly fast reproduction. It forms entire colonies. Only one female is able to lay up to 100 larvae, and each of them in just half a month becomes an adult.

Winged aphid is engaged in that detects and captures new places suitable for life and nutrition, and the function of the wingless is to reproduce offspring. Most often they settle on buds and young shoots, and they can be found on the wrong surface of the leaf plates.

Where does the aphid

Many growers do not know where can appear aphids on a home flower? This can happen for a variety of reasons. For example, in an open window or balcony may well fly winged female. And the insect can get into the house on a pet’s fur or even the person can bring it on his clothes or on other things.

Aphids can be on a recently purchased flower or on a bouquet presented to you, and it is sometimes present in the substrate used for planting or transplanting flowers. There is a high probability of the appearance of aphids in the event that in the warm season you transfer the flowers to the street, and then with the onset of cold weather bring them back to the house.

And then there are those kinds of ants that like to eat excess juice, sucked pest, and it was noticed that they themselves carry aphids on various plants.

Prevention measures:

  • In order to prevent the appearance of aphids on their “green Pets”, recently purchased plants are recommended to quarantine.
  • To do this, they for a time put away from other colors.
  • And this plant is recommended to arrange a warm shower.
  • Soil mix, which you are going to use for planting or transplanting, should be placed in the freezer for a while.
  • Extreme cold is capable of cleaning the substrate and from adults and from larvae.

The main signs of aphids

Houseplant PestsIn order to quickly get rid of aphids, it must be detected as quickly as possible and immediately begin to fight it. To do this, it is recommended to systematically inspect their home plants. If you are lucky enough to find aphids when it is still very small, then all you need to do to get rid of it is to crush the adults, as well as all the larvae.

If possible, cut and destroy the affected parts of the Bush. But in the case when there are a lot of pests on the plant, you will need more effective ways to get rid of them. There are several signs by which you can understand that the flower has aphids:

  1. The plant becomes less attractive and has a painful appearance.
  2. On the surface of the aboveground part of the Bush, you can find very small punctures that leave aphids in the process of their life.
  3. The surface of the stems and leaves from the pad becomes sticky, their color gradually changes to black, they curl and dry up.
  4. There is a shallowing and deformation of open buds, they rapidly fade and fly around.
  5. About the affected plants can be found ants who seek to get their favorite treat.
  6. Aphids can greatly harm any home flower. This pest is considered to be one of the main carriers of viral and fungal diseases. For example, in those areas where there is a fall, a black fungus is formed. The greatest danger of aphids is for such indoor crops as orchids, roses, fuchsias, hyacinths, palm trees, hibiscus, chrysanthemums, spatifilum, and cyclamen.

As soon as the plant will be found aphids, it should be moved away from other flowers to pests could not settle them. After that, you can start fighting insects.

Ways to deal with aphids on houseplants

Houseplant PestsTo save the houseplant, which was found aphid, it is necessary as soon as possible to begin to combat this dangerous pest. To get rid of it will have to spend a lot of time and effort, but it is not so difficult.

Growers for this use a variety of tools that can be divided into three categories, namely: chemical, mechanical and folk. There is also a radical way to do this completely destroy the flower that inhabited aphids if you save it there is no chance.

Often, in the beginning, applies the mechanical method, and then used folk remedies. If these methods are ineffective, then resort to the use of special chemicals that can eliminate aphids very quickly, both adults and larvae.

To increase the effectiveness of the chemical, they not only treated the Bush itself but also shed the substrate in the pot. This measure is justified if the Bush settled white aphid.

Mechanical method

Houseplant PestsThe mechanical method of cleaning the Bush is effective only if there are very few harmful insects on it. For this flower, you have to cut all affected parts, and should give him daily to shower until the aphids are completely gone.

The most effective shower using soap, because this pest is not highly loved him. It’s important to do the right thing. To begin, prepare a soap solution, for this, connect the water with soap in a ratio of 6:1. To protect your hands, wear rubber gloves.

Moisten a piece of cloth in a soap solution and wipe them affected buds, shoots, and leaves, trying to remove all insects. After that, the Bush is washed under running water.

This procedure, if necessary, can be carried out regularly until pests on the flower will not remain. However, make sure that the soap solution does not get into the substrate. During processing, remember that often the aphid larvae are in hard-to-reach places, so it is necessary to inspect each leaf and Bud while cutting and destroying those on which there is a pest.

The same mechanical method is the treatment with medical alcohol. It cannot damage the sheet plates because it evaporates almost immediately after application.

Fight against aphids improvised means

Often folk remedies are ineffective in the fight against aphids. However, when it is still very small on the plant, they may well help to get rid of it. Many growers choose folk remedies because they are eco-friendly. There are many time-tested tools, such as:

  1. Tobacco. Water should be combined with tobacco in the ratio (2:1) and mix well. The infusion will be ready after two days, it will only strain and dilute with water (1:1). Then the tool can be used to process home colors. Be extremely careful, the infusion should not get into the substrate, as this can affect the root system. In this regard, it is recommended to cover the surface of the soil mixture during processing.
  2. Garlic. 30 grams of raw garlic slices should be crushed to a mushy state with a blender or meat grinder. Massa connects with a liter of water is removed in a dark place for infusion for 24 h. the Infusion should be connected with a small amount of soap grated. Treat the affected Bush 2 or 3 times with a break of 5 days.
  3. Peel of lemon (orange). Take 100 grams of lemon or orange peel and combine them with not very much water. Put the mixture in a warm place for three days. When the infusion is ready, they need to process the flower.
  4. Red hot pepper. 100 milligrams of water is combined with 50 grams of crushed pepper. The mixture should boil over low heat for 60 minutes. After that, it is left for a day to insist and filter.
  5. To prepare the solution, it is necessary to connect 10 liters of water with 10 milligrams of broth.
  6. Wood Ash. To prepare the solution, it is necessary to combine 50 grams of crushed or liquid soap, 500 ml of wood ash and 1 bucket of water. After the solution is filtered, they can spray the Bush.
  7. White mustard. In a liter of water, dissolve 10 grams of dry powder. The mixture is removed for two days for infusion. When it is filtered, you can start processing. If pests very much, the infusion can be used not diluted, and in other cases, it is necessary to be connected with not very large amounts of water.
  8. Pine needle. A couple of liters of water combined with 0.4–0.5 kg of needles of pine or spruce. The infusion will be ready in a week. It is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:7. To completely get rid of pests to spray the plants several times with a break of three or four days.
  9. Celandine. A liter of water combined with 350 grams of fresh celandine or with 150 grams of the dry, the grass must be crushed. The mixture is removed in a dark place for 24 hours.
  10. Treatment of the affected flower is carried out three times.
  11. The tops of the tomatoes. A liter of water to connect with half a kilogram of crushed tops. Simmer the mixture for half an hour. Remove the broth in a dark place and wait until it is completely cool. During processing, it can be poured 3-4 mg of liquid soap.
  12. It has been observed that this pest is deterred by the smell of geraniums and marigolds. In this regard, the affected flower is recommended to put a plant in a pot. Still, aphids do not like the aroma of dill, parsley, and mint.

Spider mites on houseplants

Houseplant PestsHouseplants that decorate the room and help clean the air, can be affected by various diseases, and they often settle pests. The spider mite is just one of these quite dangerous harmful insects. If he settled on the plant, you appear on the web.

How to detect Spider mite

Houseplant PestsSpider mite has a very small size, in connection with this to the naked eye to see it will be extremely difficult. The largest adult has a body length of no more than 5 mm. Depending on the species, the insect may have a different color.

Most often you can meet green ticks, but they are still orange or red. These pests can hide in the soil, in flower pots or in the leaf axils of the plant. If ticks will be too many to notice them is not very difficult.

Signs of spider mite

Houseplant PestsIf this pest has settled on your indoor plant, then on the entire surface of its leaf plates, spots of light and pale yellow color are formed. If there are a lot of pests, then looking at the wrong surface of the leaves, you can see a thin web on it. If the flower is completely covered with cobwebs, it will dry up rapidly.

Types of spider mite

Houseplant PestsThere are several types of spider mites:

  1. Ordinary. This species is most common, and it is a great danger to plants. As a rule, such a pest is sheltered on young shoots or on the wrong surface of the sheet plate. Over time, when the number of mites will increase, they will begin to settle on new plants, located near the affected. Such insects have a light color. On the leaves of the affected instance, there is a spider web, as well as spots of yellow color.
  2. Red. The very small pest has a rich red color. This type of tick is the most dangerous of all, but it can not be met as often as ordinary. He prefers to settle on orchids, roses and lemon plants.
  3. Atlantic. This pest prefers to live in places where there is a high level of humidity. As a rule, he chooses exotic plants, such as palm trees or citrus.
  4. False. This insect is very, very small, so it is almost impossible to notice. Most often, its presence on the flower is known only when the plant is covered with a thin web and begins to wither very quickly.
  5. Cyclamen. Such a soil mite can hide both on tubers and on the leaf plates of the flower. Because of this, it is more difficult to get rid of this pest than its counterparts. This species can form large colonies that often the florist will be accepted for the simple dust. In this regard, it is often too late to understand that the plant is affected by such a tick. This pest prefers high humidity.
  6. Methods of dealing with spider mites
  7. Fight with spider mite, settled on a potted flower, is difficult. To destroy it, growers often resort to the use of folk or special chemicals. It should be borne in mind that it is chemicals that are more effective.
  8. But if you are afraid to harm the plant, in this case, it is better to opt for folk methods, time-tested. However, in this case, it should be noted that these tools are often low efficiency. And, in the end, the florist still has to use chemicals.

Tick control chemicals

Houseplant PestsIt was developed quite a large number of chemicals that are able to cope with spider mites. Such funds are known as acaricides. With them, you can destroy different types of mites that can settle on flowers grown in the room. For example:

  1. Aktuell. It is used to combat ticks, and this tool has a contact effect on the pest. It disrupts the feeding of spiders, making it impossible. Treatment should be carried out 2 times a month. The florist should wear a special protective suit, and spraying the flower should be done either in a non-residential room or on the street since this drug is very poisonous.
  2. Fitoverm. It is a biological drug is far less harmful than Actellic. The composition of this tool include avermectin that differs the neurotoxic effect, and it has a detrimental effect on mites. When processing the same care should be taken to remedies because Fitoverm ― it is also a poisonous remedy.
  3. Neuron. This tool is most effective. When machining dies as adult ticks, eggs, and larvae.
  4. FluMist. This drug has a detrimental effect on eggs of spider mites, with the result that the light does not appear to be new species. Adults also die from this tool, in this regard, you will be able to completely destroy the pest in a relatively short time. Spray the plant only 1 time in 4 weeks, as FluMist has high toxicity.
  5. Skelta. This tool appeared not so long ago but has become popular among gardeners. It destroys both adult insects and larvae. However, it should be remembered that after treatment, adult mites will die only after 7 days, and larvae ― after 5 days. Despite this, Skelta is highly efficient, and it will take only one spraying to the complete destruction of the mites.

Improvised means

It happens that the florist does not want for various reasons to resort to the use of chemicals to get rid of spider mites. What to do in this case? There are many folk remedies in the preparation and use of which there is nothing complicated.

Before you start the fight against spider mite folkways, you need to prepare the plant, it needs to make a thorough cleaning. To do this, it is necessary to wash the flower with plain clean water, while using detergents is not recommended since they contribute to the clogging of the pores on the leaf blades.

Then you need to very carefully wash the window sill, window and pot to remove all pests that may be there. Only then should the processing plant, the chosen folk remedy. For example:

  1. Garlic infusion. For its preparation should be finely cut a couple of heads of garlic and mix the resulting mass with 1 liter of boiled water. The container should be tightly closed with a twisting lid and removed in a cool dark place for 5 days for infusion. Before use, the infusion is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:1. Then they process the plant.
  2. Infusion of onions. 5 liters of clean water necessary to combine with one hundred grams of husk from the bow. This mixture should be allowed to infuse for 5 days. Ready infusion must necessarily strain, and then it can be used for color processing.
  3. Alcohol. This people’s method showed a relatively high efficiency. But keep in mind that they can handle only those flowers that have dense leaf plates. Take a cotton swab and moisten it with ammonia. Then they need to carefully wipe the surface of the sheet plates. The effectiveness of this method can be reduced if the ticks are hidden in hard-to-reach places.
  4. Soap solution. To prepare such a solution, you can take any soap, for example economic, green or tar. Treatment should be subjected to both the affected flower and the container in which it grows. Foam for 2-4 hours should be left on the surface of the flower. When it is washed away, the flower should be covered with a package of polyethylene, which is removed only after a day. This will maintain the required high level of humidity.

Prevention of infection

To prevent the defeat of the plant spider mite, preventive measures should be taken:

  • systematically inspect all houseplants;
  • this pest prefers dry air, so it is important to observe the optimal level of humidity;
  • it is necessary to systematically spray the sheet plates from the sprayer with clean water;
  • 1 once a month the flower needs to arrange a warm shower;
  • recently bought flowers should be placed in quarantine;
  • be sure to steam the substrate, as it may contain individuals that hibernate in the ground.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *